The Lexile Framework® for Reading Using Lexiles in the Classroom Presented by:Rick Dills, Ed.D Retired Oregon Teacher and School District Administrator Facilitator, MetaMetrics, Inc. firstname.lastname@example.org
Minutes of Text Reading per Day Estimated Number of Words Read per Year Percentile Rank 98 90 70 50 20 10 90.7 40.4 21.7 12.9 3.1 1.6 4,733,000 2,357,000 1,168,000 601,000 134,000 51,000 Relationship between Time Spent Reading and Reading Achievement Fifth-Grade Students from Anderson et al., 1988, Table 3, N = 155.
Warm-up and Stretch • Think of a skill or activity in which you have improved recently. • Describe your skills before and after your improvement. • How did you “measure” your improvement?
Improvement in Reading • In what ways does your experience relate to the reading improvement process? • How do you “measure” your students’ growth as readers?
Experience with Lexiles Experience with Differentiation 1 3 5 1 3 5 Whom Am I Teaching? Jobs and Grade Levels? Always wanted to own one I’m Malbert Smith I’m Carol Ann Tomlinson Took biology in high school
Today’s Workshop Topics • Learning about Whom You Are Teaching through Lexiles • Understanding the Lexile Framework • Matching Readers to Texts, Forecasting Comprehension and Tracking Growth • Using Lexile Resources to Support Instruction and Differentiation • Accessing Lexile Resources Available to Teachers
Lexile Workshops: Teacher Objectives • Use Lexiles as a reading measurement system • Profile students, predict comprehension, and match readers to text • Understand, chart, and explain patterns of Lexile growth • Access and use online resources • Differentiate instruction by developing and using tiered reading/resource lists • Empower students to be strategic, reflective readers who can use Lexile resources • Communicate with parents about Lexiles, growth, and how to access resources
Workshop Materials Slide Notes Lexville SD Simulation Materials Lexile Maps and Charts Informational Handouts
Learning about Whom You Are Teaching Big Question: What can Lexile scores tell you about your students?
A Lexville School District Classroom Lexcel Elementary 4th Grade Students Teacher:Alex Isles Fall Scores (T1) (from a computer-based Reading Inventory) Sorted by alpha
Activity 1:Studying Classroom Patterns • What is the Lexile range for this classroom (lowest and highest scores)? • What Lexile patterns do you see in the class? • Which students (if any) have Lexile scores that are outside the class Lexile continuum? • Based on the Lexile patterns, how might you group these students? • What questions come to mind?
What is a Lexile? Big Idea:Lexiles provide a single measure of…Reader Ability and Text Readability
Lexiles: A measurement system • “lex-” - root word referring to “words” (e.g. “lexicon”) • “-ile” - root word referring to “measures” (e.g., “percentile”) • Lexiles are units that measure text readability. • Lexiles can also measure reading ability - by determining the level of text a reader can comprehend. • Lexiles are based on a sophisticated statistical model (Rasch modeling).
How do Lexiles measure reading? Inquiry Exercise • Three measurement tools… • An object in the room… • A doorway… • Meaning?
How are Lexiles like inches? • A universal, accurate measurement system • Used to measure a student’s current “size” and growth over time • Not grade specific: Students come in different sizes and grow at different rates
Growing Taller as a Reader Like pencil marks on a wall, Lexiles provide a measure of reading growth over time
2000L 200L 1800L 1000L 600L 1400L 0 The Lexile scale can measure… • How “tall” a student is as a reader • Where he/she falls on a Lexile text map at any point in time • How high a student can “reach” • The Lexile range of text that the student can read and comprehend successfully • How much “taller” a student has grown • The change over time in the student’s Lexile level and the range of text he/she can read
…as Readers, Too Reading Scores in Lexiles 4th graders lined up by height?
Reading by Grade Height by Age 180 1600 160 1400 140 1200 120 1000 Standing Height (cm) Lexile Measure 100 800 80 600 60 400 40 200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age (Years) Grade Growth Trajectories for Height and Reading Source: Malbert Smith
Mathematics Temperature Time Metric System Reading 2000 2004 1700 1890 1970 “Unification” in Science
Allows us to… Measure reader ability and text readability with a common metric: Lexiles Forecast the level of comprehensiona reader is expected to experience with a particular text The Lexile Framework® for Reading
MetaMetrics: The Lexile Company • Founded in 1984 • R&D firm focused on integrating assessment and instruction • Research funded by five grants from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development • Commercialized The Lexile Framework for Reading in 1997
Addison-Wesley Britannica Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Textbook Publishers Crabtree Globe-Fearon Dominee Hampton-Brown DK Publishing Book Publishers Harcourt School Publishers Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Test Publishers Holt Rinehart & Winston Globe-Fearon CTB/McGraw-Hill Modern Curriculum Houghton Mifflin Hampton Brown Pearson Educational Testing Services (ETS) Prentice Hall Harcourt Scholastic Harcourt Educational Measurement SRA/McGraw-Hill Rand McNally Holt Rigby North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Scott Foresman Leapfrog Rosen Northwest Evaluation Association Lee & Low SRA/McGraw-Hill Riverside Publishing Scott Foresman Texas Education Agency Steck-Vaughn Utah State Office of Education The Wright Group Prebinders Periodical Databases Bigchalk/ProQuest EBSCO Questia Newsbank The Booksource Bound-to-Stay Bound DEMCO Book Distributors & Databases Econoclad Permabound School/Public Libraries Reading Motivation Follett Library Services Follett Software Company EBSCO Online Reader Baker & Taylor Mackin Library Media Hooked on Phonics The Book Source HOSTS Follett Library Services Scholastic Read180 Follett Software Co. Scholastic Reading Counts! Ingram Success for All RRBowker Sundance The Unification of Reading
Current Impact of Lexiles • Millions of K-12 students receive Lexile measures from a linked test (national norm-referenced or state criterion-referenced) • Over450 book publishers have titles with Lexile measures • Tens of millions of articles with Lexile measures are available through database-services partners • Tens of thousands of books with Lexile measures are available at www.lexile.com/lexilebookdatabase
Lexiles in Texas (Measuring Readers in El Paso) • The TAKS has been linkedto the Lexile scale through acorrelation study. • Students in grades 3-10 and exiting students take the TAKS and receive a predicted Lexile score that correlates to their TAKS reading performance score. • TAKS student reports now include predicted Lexile scores. Schools/teachers have access to conversion tables that correlate TAKS raw/scale scores with Lexiles. • In addition, students in grades 3, 5, and 8 will be able to take the Pearson PASeries online formative assessment up to 3 times a year to attain a Lexile score and forecast their predicted TAKS performance. Teachers will be able to use Lexilescores/ranges to study classroom patterns, predict comprehension, inform instruction, and chart growth.
TAKS to Lexile Conversion Tables Accessible at TEA Website http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/lexile/
LOW HIGH Classroom Score Report Lexcel Elementary 4th Grade Students Teacher:Alex Isles Fall Scores (T1) (from a computer-based Reading Inventory) Sorted byLexiles Range = 757L
“Typical” Classroom • By the end of elementary school, there is an 800-900 Lexile range in a typical classroom. • The extent of this range often increases in middle and high school. • How do students in a typical classroom “measure up” to the textbooks they are given?
Grade Level Text Demands:A Real-World Standard for Reading Achievement • Lexile researchers have analyzed thousands of texts to determine typical text demands for grades in school and pathways after school • Students’ Lexile levels predict how well they “measure up” to the text demands they will face
Activity 2:Meeting Text Demands in Your Classroom • What are the typical text measures for your grade level classroom? [Text Demand by Grade Chart] • What is the Lexile range for your classroom? [Classroom Score Report] • How well do your students “match up” with the typical texts at your level? With the actual texts in your classroom? • What do you do to support students whose reading levels don’t match your texts? • What might you do? How might Lexiles help you?
What are the implications for your students? In your classroom? In life?
Lexiles and Life After School • Adult Text Demands: What is the range of text typically encountered as an informed citizen, consumer, and worker? 1100L to 1400L
Lexiles and The News • Reuters • NY Times • Washington Post • Wall Street Journal • Chicago Tribune • Associated Press • USA Today
Lexiles and The News • Reuters (1440L) • NY Times (1380L) • Washington Post (1350L) • Wall Street Journal (1320L) • Chicago Tribune (1310L) • Associated Press (1310L) • USA Today (1200L)
Lexiles and Lifelong Reading • Aetna Health Care Discount Form • Medical Insurance Benefit Package • Application for Student Loan • Federal Tax Form W-4 • Installing Your Child Safety Seat • Microsoft Windows User Manual • GM Protection Plan • CD-DVD Player Instructions
Lexiles and Lifelong Reading • Aetna Health Care Discount Form (1360L) • Medical Insurance Benefit Package (1280L) • Application for Student Loan (1270L) • Federal Tax Form W-4 (1260L) • Installing Your Child Safety (1170L) • Microsoft Windows User Manual (1150L) • GM Protection Plan (1150L) • CD-DVD Player Instructions (1080L)
Lexile Study: “Student Readiness for Postsecondary Options” Gary Williamson, Ph.D. (2004) Median Text Measures: • 11th/12th grade (LA/SS textbooks): 1090L • Military (training/field manuals): 1180L • Citizenship (newspapers, voting, jury): 1230L • Workplace (Daggett study materials): 1260L • Postsecondary - first two yrs (textbooks): 1355L • GED Test Materials: 1060L • SAT/ACT Test Materials: 1180L
Lexiles and Jobs • scientist • accountant 15 • 14 teacher • executive 13 • 12 nurse 11 • supervisor 10 • sales 9 • secretary 8 • 7 foreman Job Level 6 • clerk 5 • craftsman 4 • construction 3 • service 2 • 1 labor 0 700 900 1100 1300 1500 Reader measure (in Lexiles) Data: National Adult Literacy Study (1992)
Lexiles and Salary • 5.2 $75,000 + 5 • $50,000-$74,999 4.8 • $40,000-$49,999 • 4.6 $30,000-$39,999 Log Income • $20,000-$29,999 4.4 • $15,000-$19,999 • $10,000-$14,999 4.2 4 • $5,000-$9,999 3.8 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 Data: National Adult Literacy Study (1992)
Understanding the Lexile Framework Big Idea: Lexiles allow us to… Match Reader Ability and Text Difficulty
Two Underlying Concepts of the Lexile Framework • Text Readability • The difficulty of reading materials (based on dimensions or characteristics of the text) • Reader Ability • The ability of readers to construct meaning from text (as measured on tests) Based on the relationship between Reader Ability and Text Readability, it is possible to… • Predict Reading Comprehension • Differentiate Instruction • Measure Reader Progress and Growth
The Lexile® Map The Lexile Analyzer® Linked Reading Test Measures Reader Ability Measures Text Readability Links Text & Reader Test of Reading Development Lexile Framework Components
ActivityAnalyzing Text Readability • Read and examine the following two passages. • Write down 2-4 ways that the passages differ. • Share and compare your observations with your neighbor’s.
Clifford’s Manners(Bridwell, 300L) Clifford loves to go visiting. When he visits his sister in the country, he always calls ahead. Clifford always arrives on time. Don’t be late. Knock before you walk in. He knocks on the door before he enters. He wipes his feet first. Wipe your feet. Clifford kisses his sister. He shakes hands with her friend. Shake hands. Wash up before you eat. Clifford’s sister has dinner ready. Clifford washes his hands before he eats. Clifford chews his food with his mouth closed. He never talks with his mouth full. Don’t talk with your mouth full. Help clean up. Clifford helps with the clean-up. Say good-bye. Then he says thank you and good-bye to his sister and to his friend. Everyone loves Clifford’s manners. (260L)
Discourse on the Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy(R. Descartes, 1720L) To such a class of things pertains corporeal nature in general, and its extension, the figure of extended things, their quantity or magnitude and number, as also the place in which they are, the time which measures their duration, and so on. That is possibly why our reasoning is not unjust when we conclude from this that Physics, Astronomy, Medicine and all other science which have as their end the consideration of composite things, are very simple and very general, without taking great trouble to ascertain whether they are actually existent or not, contain some measure of certainty and an element of indubitable. (1870L)