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DOMAIN I ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING (32% of test) . Standard I. Oral Language: developmental processes of oral language, Standards II, III, V, VI. Phonemic Awareness; Alphabetic Principle; Word Analysis and Decoding; Fluency word analysis skills.

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(32% of test)

Standard I. Oral Language: developmental processes of oral language,
  • Standards II, III, V, VI. Phonemic Awareness; Alphabetic Principle; Word Analysis and Decoding; Fluency word analysis skills
Standard IV. Literacy Development and Practice: foundations of reading and early literacy development.
  • Standard VII. Reading Comprehension: components of comprehension, and strategies for improving their comprehension.
Standard VIII, IX : Development of Written Communication; Writing Conventions

writing is a developmental

  • Standard XI. Research and Inquiry Skills:

studyand inquiry

Standard XII. Viewing and Representing
  • Standard VIII. Assessment and Instruction in Developing LiteracyTypes of Assessment
types of assessment
Types of Assessment

Formal assessment: Data driven (statistics); Standardized tests; General areas of knowledge; (Remember the Bell Curve - percentiles, stanines, etc.)

Informal Assessment: Performance driven; more specific knowledge areas; (remember IRIs, RMIs, rubrics, portfolios)

great link to assessments for review
Great link to Assessments for review

Link to “other” Assessments

roles of oral language
Roles of Oral Language
  • Oral language is how children (people) organize their thoughts. It is the foundation for other language and learning strategies.
  • Critical thinking and cognitive development are impacted by oral language development. We learn to think by talking things out.
oral language development
Oral Language Development
  • Stages of Oral Development
  • 0 – 12 months: From “cooing” to “babbling”
  • 1 – 2: Holophrasic to telegraphic (2 words)
  • 2 – 3: Telegraphic to descriptive ((NO!))
  • 3 - 4: Simple to Complex ((Overgeneralization of rules))
  • 4 – 6: Toward refinement ((Generative Language))
innatist view
Innatist View
  • L.A.D: Language Acquisition Device (Noam Chomsky): Internal mechanism (neurological system) activated by environmental stimuli.
  • Deep Structure: Universal Grammar
  • Basic syntactic rules
  • Not imitative
constructivist view
Constructivist View
  • Language learning is individual
  • It is impacted by the social, linguistic and cultural context in which the child encounters language.
  • Piaget: Cognitive growth Linguistic Growth
  • Vygotsky: Linguistic Growth Cognitive Growth
developing oral language
Developing Oral Language
  • Oral play: language of position like: over, under, around
  • Daily schedule
  • Role play: acting out situations
  • Use technologies to allow kids to interact with language
  • BACK
essential components for reading instruction nrp
Essential Components for Reading Instruction (NRP)
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Vocabulary Development
  • Reading Fluency, including Oral Reading Skills
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies


early reading instruction
Early Reading Instruction
  • Sequence of Instruction (Developmentally basic to most complex)First Developmentally: Phonemic Awareness - Oral segmentation and blendingSequenced as follows:
  • First: “rubber banding”
  • Second: segmenting using compound words
  • Third: syllabic segmentation and blending
  • Fourth: onset and rime segmentation and blending
  • Fifth: individual sound segmentation and blending
  • Second Developmentally: Alphabetic Principle - Speech is made up of individual sounds (Phonemic Awareness) and these sounds can be represented by individual letters.1. Alphabet books are one strategy2. Language Experience stories are helpful
Second Developmentally: Alphabetic Principal – Relationship between English written symbols and specific sound.
  • Third Developmentally: Phonic Instruction - Word identification strategy using English spelling (Orthographic) patterns as an aide to orally producing matches for written words.
  • Sequence for phonic instruction is the same as for Phonemic Awareness
terms you should know
Terms you should know:
  • ·Consonant Digraph - Two connected consonants which produce one sound- (ch, th, ng)
  • ·Consonant Blends or Clusters - two (or more) connected consonants which produce the sounds of all - (st, fl, scr)
  • ·Diphthongs - Two connected vowels which produce a single “glided” sound (oi in oil OR ea in real)
  • ·Schwa - Any vowel when it produces the sound “uh” as the “a” in America. “c” is the symbol used to represent schwa.
·Onset and Rime - The onset is the part of a syllable that comes before the vowel. Rime is the rest of the syllable.
  • Phoneme – Smallest unit of sound in a language. EXAMPLE: “that”: /ơ/ǽ/t/ There are three phonemes, but four letters.
  • Grapheme - Graphemes are the letters of the alphabet written on paper to represent separate sounds of speech written in words. Single letter or digraphs. /f/ – f, ph, gh, ff
Morpheme - The smallest meaningful unit of a language. They can be bound Free (stands alone - “man”) or they can be Bound (must be attached to a Free morpheme [-ly] - “manly”)
  • Structural Analysis - Studying words using morphological knowledge to find the meaning of the word.
implications for instruction of very young children
Implications for Instruction of Very Young Children

Teachers must:

·        help children understand that language is composed of sounds stung together.

·        individual words are made up of particular sounds ion a particular order.

·        help children learn to segment and blend these sounds using metacognitive strategies.

  • help children understand that particular sounds may be represented by a particular letter or pattern of letters.BACK
vocabulary development
Vocabulary Development
  • ·Have structure and organization behind the words you present.
  • oBy word type : emotion words, action words
  • oBy roots
  • oEtc.
  • ·Incorporate multisensory learning from the beginning.
  • ·Model the activities first.
  • ·Most work with vocabulary should be done with all the meanings available
  • ·Keep an ongoing list prominently posted.

* Go beyond the definitions of the words. Include the connotations BACK

reading stages
Reading Stages


1. Magical

plays with books

listens to stories

begins to notice print

Self-Concept Stage
    • Reading-like behavior
    • Reconstructs familiar books and stories
    • Writing begins to display phonic influences
    • Rhymes
    • Begins phonemic awareness
Bridging Stage
    • Reads and writes name
    • Picks out individual words (does not transfer from one context to another)
    • Reads familiar books
    • Enjoys chants and rhyming poetry
independent stage
Independent Stage
  • Takeoff Stage
    • Wants to read often
    • Knows that print conveys meaning
    • Conserve meaning across situations
    • Oral reading is often word-for-word rather for meaning
Independent Reading Stage
    • Comprehends authors message
    • Reads for pleasure
    • Transactional eading
    • Orally reads with expression
    • Sees print as “truth”
Skilled Reader
    • Can read about things outside emmediate experiences
    • Incorporates “read” vocabulary into their own
    • Can discuss elements of stories and texts
    • Makes inferences
    • Critically reads


stages of writing development
Stages of Writing Development

Preliterate: Drawing

  • uses drawing to stand for writing
  • believes that drawings / writing is communication of a purposeful message
  • read their drawings as if there were writing on them
Preliterate: Scribbling
  • scribbles but intends it as writing
  • scribbling resembles writing
  • holds and uses pencil like an adult
Emergent: Random-letters or letter strings
  • uses letter sequences perhaps learned from his/her name
  • may write the same letters in many ways
  • long strings of letters in random order
Transitional: Writing via invented spelling
  • creates own spelling when conventional spelling is not known
  • one letter may represent an entire syllable
  • words may overlay
  • may not use proper spacing
  • as writing matures, more words are spelled conventionally
  • as writing matures, perhaps only one or two letters invented or omitted
Fluency: Conventional spelling
  • usually resembles adult writing
study skills
Study Skills




Adjusting reading rate to materials



Graphic Organizers – maps, charts, graphs


inquiry learning
Inquiry Learning


Inquiry teaching leads students to build their understanding of fundamental ideas through experience with materials, by consulting books, other resources, and experts, and through argument and debate among themselves

Inquiry-Based Methodology
  • It focuses on asking questions, considering alternative explanations, and weighing evidence. It includes high expectations for students to acquire factual knowledge, but it expects more from them than the mere storage and retrieval of information.
Facets of Inquiry
  • ·making observations;
  • ·posing questions;
  • ·examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known;
  • ·planning and conducting investigations;
  • ·reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence;
  • ·using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data;
  • ·proposing answers, explanations, and predictions;
  • ·and communicating the results. BACK
research based teachable comprehension strategies
Research Based/Teachable Comprehension Strategies
  • using background knowledge to make inferences (Hansen and Pearson 1983) or set purposes (Ogle 1986);
  • getting the main idea (Baumann 1984);
  • identifying the sources of information needed to answer a question (Raphael and Pearson 1985); and
  • using the typical structure of stories (Fitzgerald and Spiegel 1983) or expository texts (Armbruster et al. 1987) to help students understand what they are reading.
comprehension strategies
Comprehension Strategies
  • Before-reading techniques* Know, Want to Know, Learn - KWL* Inferential Strategy
  • During-reading techniques* asking questions -

* summarizing* making predictions

  • After-reading techniques* discussion* interviewing
some helpful links
Some Helpful Links

Strategies for Reading Comprehension

David Pearson’s Notions

Saskatchewan Evergreen Curriculum – Reading Instruction


from the nrp
From the NRP

Good readers are purposeful and active. They use a wide variety of strategies, often simultaneously, to create meaning from text. Some of the most important are:

1. Monitoring comprehension: Successful readers know when they understand a passage and when they don’t. When they don’t understand, they know to pause and utilize strategies to improve their understanding.

2. Using prior knowledge: Thinking about what is already known about the subject helps readers make connections between the story and their knowledge.

3. Making predictions: Good readers often make predictions as they read through a story, using both the knowledge they bring to a text as well as what they can derive from the text.

4. Questioning: When children ask questions about what they read and subsequently search for answers, they are interacting with the text to construct meaning. Good questions are based on a child’s knowledge base and what further information she desires.

5. Recognizing story structure: Children will understand a story better if they understand how it is organized (i.e., setting, plot, characters, and themes).
  • Summarizing: When they summarize a story, readers determine the main idea and important information and use their own words to demonstrate a real understanding of the text.


informal reading inventories
Informal Reading Inventories

Purpose: To assess reading levels – independent, instructional, frustration

Includes: Graded Word List, Graded Oral and Silent Passages, Listening Test


miscue analysis
Miscue Analysis
  • Purpose: To assess strategic strengths and weaknesses of the reader through examination of the reader’s unaided interaction with extended text.
  • Includes: Reading passage, retelling rubric, tape recorder
  • Back
key concepts of viewing and representing

There are four basic forms of media involved in viewing and representing. They each serve a different master.

Creative Media

Descriptive Media

Persuasive Media

Expository Media

Creative Media

Creative media is used to entertain, for the most part. This includes such varied things as:


Graphic art

Web design

Clothing design




Descriptive Media

Descriptive Media is primarily used to report.

This includes such things as:



Marketing coordination

News photographs


Persuasive Media

Persuasive Media is meant to influence the audience’s thinking. Some examples could include:

Advertising of all kinds

Special interest group specials and sites

Political blogs

Pseudo-news sites


Expository Media

Expository Media tried to explain or inform. Some examples of this might be:







Within the several forms of media, there are several types of media. These are the ways in which media may be displayed.

Printed - paper

Visual - graphics


Electronic – all forms of electronic media


Helping students learn understand the various types and forms discussed allows the learner to construct meaning in several ways.

Analyze: Examine in order to interpret

Interpret: Explain the meaning

Evaluate: Determine the significance of the meaning


In order to analyze, interpret and evaluate, the viewer/representer must use some, or all, of the following:



External factors (schema)



instructional strategies
  • Teachers can incorporate media literacy concepts and activities into all content areas.
  • More than just analyzing media— it’s learning to create
  • Production activities are a valuable
  • Students need to feel “safe”
  • Support this by providing a safe environment for students’ ideas, observations and questions
  • Elicit student responses beyond the surface:
  • Open ended questions
  • Metacognitive questioning
  • Self reflection