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  1. Before Reading_Main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Discussion 2. Background Information The Ice Ages Myths and Legends Isaac Asimov 3. Warm-up Questions 4. Heading Matching

  2. Before Reading_Discussion1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Discussion Directions: The topic of this text is about an imaginative underground life for human beings. Now in small groups, look at the following pictures and have a discussion about another two imaginative lives by answering the questions.

  3. Before Reading_Discussion_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. What are the differences and similarities of the four pictures? 2. What do you know about Deep Sea? 3. What do you know about the Moon? 4. Do you think it is possible for man to live there? Why or why not?

  4. Before Reading_The Ice Ages Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The Ice Ages

  5. Before Reading_The Ice Ages_pop Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading An ice age is the period in the earth’s history when moving sheets of ice covered large regions of the world’s land surface. Earth scientists believe that there have been several ice ages. The earliest known ice age occurred about 700 million years ago, and the most recent one, usually referred to as the Ice Age or the Pleistocene Ice Age began about 2 million years ago and continued to 10,000 or 15,000 years ago. Scientists have learned that Ice Age climates changed from time to time. During periods of advancing ice, average temperatures were probably about 10 to 15 degrees F (about -9 to -12 degrees C). ■

  6. Before Reading_Myths and Legends1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Myths and Legends Directions: Listen to the following paragraph and fill in the missing words. Both myths and legends are stories handed down from earliest times. Although the two words are often used interchangeably, myths are stories about and legends stories about men. Myths embody the beliefs of peoples, and provided a romantic explanation of the wonders of nature when explanations were lacking. Natural forces were and deified. For example, the Greeks believed that thunder and lightning expressed the of great god Zeus. Legends are stories connected with some period in the history of a people or nation, often containing an of fact. Legends are intended to a hero and tell marvelous deeds he supposedly performed. traditional ___________ gods ______ primitive _________ scientific _________ personified ____________ displeasure ____________ element _________ glorify _______ ■

  7. Before Reading_Myths and Legends2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading taming In Chinese folklore, the story of Da Yu who succeeded in the rivers is a legend and the story of Chang’E Flying to the Moon is a . ________ myth ______

  8. Before Reading_Isaac Asimov 1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Isaac Asimov Isaac Asimov (1920~1992) — A Russian-born American writer ■

  9. Before Reading_Isaac Asimov_pop1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Birth: Jan. 2, 1920~Apr. 6, 1992 Education: a doctorate in chemistry from Columbia University Working experience: A teacher of biochemistry (1949~1958) at Boston University, remaining on the faculty there until his death His works: -I, Robot (1950) -The Foundation Trilogy (1951~1952) -The Gods Themselves (1972) -Foundation’s Edge (1982) -New Guide to Science (1984) -Foundation & Earth (1986) -Prelude to Foundation (1988) Achievements: the Hugo and Nebula awards

  10. Before Reading_ Asimov_pop2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The Russian-born American scientist and writer Isaac Asimov, born on Jan. 2, 1920 and died on Apr. 6, 1992, wrote prolifically on a variety of subjects. Asimov's New Guide to Science (revised edition 1984) is ranked by critics among the best books of science written for nonscientists. Asimov was best known, however, for his many works of science fiction. The most famous include I, Robot (1950), The Foundation Trilogy (1951~1952), The Gods Themselves (1972), and Foundation's Edge (1982), which won both the Hugo and Nebula awards. Two volumes of his autobiography were published: In Memory Yet Green (1979) and In Joy Still Felt (1980). Later works include Foundation & Earth (1986), Prelude to Foundation (1988), etc. His family immigrated to the United States when he was three years old and settled in Brooklyn, New York. He entered Columbia University at the age of 15, and at the age of 18 he sold his story to Amazing Stories. Asimov received a doctorate in chemistry from Columbia University and taught biochemistry (1949~1958) at Boston University, remaining on the faculty there until his death.

  11. Before Reading_Warm-up Questions Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Warm-up Questions 1. 2. 3. What do you think of the way people live today? Are you satisfied with our life now on the Earth’s surface? Please give reasons to support your point of view. What do you suggest to solve the urban housing problem? Do you think it would be reasonable for human beings to make their houses underground? Why? a: All the agents sell the houses on credit. b: The government may provide buyers with low-interest loan.

  12. Before Reading_Heading Matching 1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Heading Matching Directions: Read the following paragraphs and choose the most suitable heading for each one from the list below. A. B. Growing numbers of Europeans are burrowing below ground to create houses, offices, discos and shopping malls. It is already proving a way of life in extreme climates: in winter months in Montreal, Canada, for instance, citizens can escape the cold in an underground complete with shops and even health clinics. And underground shopping malls are already common in Japan. Building big commercial buildings underground can be a way to avoid disfiguring or threatening a beautiful or environmentally sensitive landscape. Indeed many of the buildings which consume most land such as cinemas, supermarkets, theatres, warehouses or libraries have no need to be on the surface since they do not need windows.

  13. Before Reading__Heading Matching 2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading C. D. There are big advantages, too, when it comes to private homes. A development of 194 houses which would take up 14 hectares of land above ground would occupy 2.7 while the number of roads would be halved. And an underground dweller has never paid a heating bill, thanks to solar panels and natural insulation. In the U.S., where energy-efficient homes become popular after the oil crisis of 1973, 10,000 underground houses have been built. A terrace of five homes, Britain’s first subterranean development, is under way in Nottinghanshire. Italy’s outstanding example of subterranean architecture is the Olivetti residential center in Ivrea.

  14. Before Reading__Heading Matching 3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading • Headings: • Demands on space and energy are reduced • The plans for future homes • Worldwide examples of underground living accommodation • Some buildings do not require natural light • Developing underground services around the world • Underground living improves health A-v B-ivC-iD-iii

  15. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Further Understanding For Part 1 Questions and Answers For Part 2 Table Completion Supporting Details for Each Advantage Approaches to Paragraph Development Discussion For Part 3 Brainstorming

  16. Globe Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Lines Main Ideas The author puts forward a suggestion that someday we may seek to further increase our comfort and security by building our houses underground. 1 1~13 The author gives four advantages of underground life. 2 14~74 3 75~76 Living underground may be odd but there are more benefits of it.

  17. Globe Reading._2_Q&A Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions and Answers Directions: Go through the first part and answer the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. Why, according to the author, do human beings often make their homes in caves during the ice ages? Why does the author call our houses caves? Why does the author think his suggestion may seem unacceptable at first thought? What’s your feeling about underground living?

  18. Globe Reading._Table Completion Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Table Completion Directions: Go over the second part quickly and finish the following table. The author’s suggestion We may seek to add further to our comfort and security by building our houses underground. Weather would no longer be important. Paragraph 5 Local time would no longer be important. Paragraphs 6~7 Advantages The ecological structure could be stabilized. Paragraphs 8~9 Paragraphs 10~12 Nature would be closer.

  19. Globe Reading._Supporting details 1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supporting Details for Each Advantage Paragraph 5 Weather would no longer be important. Terrible weather would not trouble the underground. Temperature variation in a day or a year would not exist underground. Energy used for air conditioning could be saved. Damage done to structures and human beings by weather would be diminished. Transportation over local distance would be simplified. Paragraphs 6~7 Local time would no longer be important. No difference between day and night. Everywhere work on the stroke. No jet lag.

  20. Globe Reading._ Supporting details 2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Paragraphs 8~9 The ecological structure could be stabilized. The extent of the ground occupancy would be enormously minimized. Surface space might be increasingly turnedover to park and wildness. Paragraphs 10~12 Nature would be closer. People would see more greenery under ecologically healthier condition.

  21. Globe Reading._Approaches Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Approaches to Paragraph Development Paragraph 5 Illustration Paragraph 6 Contrast Paragraph 7 Illustration Paragraphs 8~9 Contrast Paragraph 10 Rhetorical questions Paragraphs 11~12 Contrast

  22. Globe Reading._Discussion Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Discussion Do you have any different ideas about these four advantages?

  23. Globe Reading._Brainstorming Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Brainstorming Give more advantages of underground living the author haven’t said.

  24. Article1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Would you choose to live underground if you could gain many advantages from doing so? Weather would no longer trouble you. Temperature would remain the same all the year round. Artificial lighting could make the rhythm of our life uniform the whole world over. And the ecology of the natural world above ground would be greatly improved. While the prospect of moving underground may not be appealing to many people, Isaac Asimov is an enthusiast.

  25. Article1-2_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The New Caves Isaac Asimov During the ice ages, human beings exposed to the colder temperatures of the time would often make their homes in caves. There they found greater comfort and security than they would have in the open. We still live in caves called houses, again for comfort and security. Virtually no one would willingly sleep on the ground under the stars. Is it possible that someday we may seek to add further to our comfort and security by building our houses underground — in new, manmade caves?

  26. Article3-4_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading It may not seem a palatable suggestion, at first thought. We have so many evil associations with the underground. In our myths and legends, the underground is the realm of evil spirits and of the dead, and is often the location of an afterlife of torment. (This may be because dead bodies are buried underground, and because volcanic eruptions make the underground appear to be a hellish place of fire and noxious gases.) Yet there are advantages to underground life, too, and something to be said for imagining whole cities, even mankind generally, moving downward; of having the outermost mile of the Earth’s crust honeycombed with passages and structures, like a gigantic ant hill.

  27. Article5_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading First, weather would no longer be important, since it is primarily a phenomenon of the atmosphere. Rain, snow, sleet, fog would not trouble the underground world. Even temperature variations are limited to the open surface and would not exist underground. Whether day or night, summer or winter, temperatures in the underground world would remain equable and nearly constant. The vast amounts of energy now expended in warming our surface surroundings when they are too cold, and cooling them when they are too warm, could be saved. The damage done to manmade structures and to human beings by weather would be gone. Transportation over local distances would be simplified. (Earthquakes would remain a danger, of course.)

  28. Article6_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Second, local time would no longer be important. On the surface, the tyranny of day and night cannot be avoided, and when it is morning in one place, it is noon in another, evening in still another and midnight in yet another. The rhythm of human life therefore varies from place to place. Underground, where there is no externally produced day, but only perpetual darkness, it would be artificial lighting that produces the day and this could be adjusted to suit man’s convenience.

  29. Article7-8_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The whole world could be on eight-hour shifts, starting and ending on the stroke everywhere, at least as far as business and community endeavors were concerned. This could be important in a freely mobile world. Air transportation over long distances would no longer have to entail “jet lag.” Individuals landing on another coast or another continent would find the society they reached geared to the same time of day as at home. Third, the ecological structure could be stabilized. To a certain extent, mankind encumbers the Earth. It is not only his enormous numbers that take up room; more so, it is all the structures he builds to house himself and his machines, to make possible his transportation and communication, to offer him rest and recreation. All these things distort the wild, depriving many species of plants and animals of their natural habitat — and sometimes, involuntarily, favoring a few, such as rats and roaches .

  30. Article9_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading If the works of man were removed below ground — and, mind you, below the level of the natural world of the burrowing animals — man would still occupy the surface with his farms, his forestry, his observation towers, his air terminals and so on, but the extent of that occupation would be enormously decreased. Indeed, as one imagines the underground world to become increasingly elaborate, one can visualize much of the food supply eventually deriving from hydroponic growth in artificially illuminated areas underground. The Earth’s surface might be increasingly turned over to park and to wilderness, maintained at ecological stability.

  31. Article10-11_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Fourth, nature would be closer. It might seem that to withdraw underground is to withdraw from the natural world, but would that be so? Would the withdrawal be more complete than it is now, when so many people work in city buildings that are often windowless and artificially conditioned? Even where there are windows, what is the prospect one views (if one bothers to) but sun, sky, and buildings to the horizon — plus some limited greenery? And to get away from the city now? To reach the real countryside? One must travel horizontally for miles, first across city pavements and then across suburban sprawls.

  32. Article12-13_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading In an underworld culture, the countryside would be right there, a few hundred yards above the upper level of the cities — wherever you are. The surface would have to be protected from too frequent, or too intense, or too careless visiting, but however carefully restricted the upward trips might be, the chances are that the dwellers of the new caves would see more greenery, under ecologically healthier conditions, than dwellers of surface cities do today. However odd and repulsive underground living may seem at first thought, there are things to be said for it — and I haven’t even said them all.

  33. Article1-2_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The New Caves Isaac Asimov During the ice ages, human beings exposed to the colder temperatures of the time would often make their homes in caves. There they found greater comfort and security than they would have in the open. We still live in caves called houses, again for comfort and security. Virtually no one would willingly sleep on the ground under the stars. Is it possible that someday we may seek to add further to our comfort and security by building our houses underground — in new, manmade caves?

  34. Article5_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading First, weather would no longer be important, since it is primarily a phenomenon of the atmosphere. Rain, snow, sleet, fog would not trouble the underground world. Even temperature variations are limited to the open surface and would not exist underground. Whether day or night, summer or winter, temperatures in the underground world would remain equable and nearly constant. The vast amounts of energy now expended in warming our surface surroundings when they are too cold, and cooling them when they are too warm, could be saved. The damage done to manmade structures and to human beings by weather would be gone. Transportation over local distances would be simplified. (Earthquakes would remain a danger, of course.)

  35. Article6_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Second, local time would no longer be important. On the surface, the tyranny of day and night cannot be avoided, and when it is morning in one place, it is noon in another, evening in still another and midnight in yet another. The rhythm of human life therefore varies from place to place. Underground, where there is no externally produced day, but only perpetual darkness, it would be artificial lighting that produces the day and this could be adjusted to suit man’s convenience.

  36. Article7-8_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The whole world could be on eight-hour shifts, starting and ending on the stroke everywhere, at least as far as business and community endeavors were concerned. This could be important in a freely mobile world. Air transportation over long distances would no longer have to entail “jet lag.” Individuals landing on another coast or another continent would find the society they reached geared to the same time of day as at home. Third, the ecological structure could be stabilized. To a certain extent, mankind encumbers the Earth. It is not only his enormous numbers that take up room; more so, it is all the structures he builds to house himself and his machines, to make possible his transportation and communication, to offer him rest and recreation. All these things distort the wild, depriving many species of plants and animals of their natural habitat — and sometimes, involuntarily, favoring a few, such as rats and roaches .

  37. Article9_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading If the works of man were removed below ground — and, mind you, below the level of the natural world of the burrowing animals — man would still occupy the surface with his farms, his forestry, his observation towers, his air terminals and so on, but the extent of that occupation would be enormously decreased. Indeed, as one imagines the underground world to become increasingly elaborate, one can visualize much of the food supply eventually deriving from hydroponic growth in artificially illuminated areas underground. The Earth’s surface might be increasingly turned over to park and to wilderness, maintained at ecological stability.

  38. Article10-11_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Fourth, nature would be closer. It might seem that to withdraw underground is to withdraw from the natural world, but would that be so? Would the withdrawal be more complete than it is now, when so many people work in city buildings that are often windowless and artificially conditioned? Even where there are windows, what is the prospect one views (if one bothers to) but sun, sky, and buildings to the horizon — plus some limited greenery? And to get away from the city now? To reach the real countryside? One must travel horizontally for miles, first across city pavements and then across suburban sprawls.

  39. Article12-13_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading In an underworld culture, the countryside would be right there, a few hundred yards above the upper level of the cities — wherever you are. The surface would have to be protected from too frequent, or too intense, or too careless visiting, but however carefully restricted the upward trips might be, the chances are that the dwellers of the new caves would see more greenery, under ecologically healthier conditions, than dwellers of surface cities do today. However odd and repulsive underground living may seem at first thought, there are things to be said for it — and I haven’t even said them all.

  40. Article1-2_S_There they Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Analyze the structure and the voice of the sentence. The New Caves Isaac Asimov During the ice ages, human beings exposed to the colder temperatures of the time would often make their homes in caves. There they found greater comfort and security than they would have in the open. We still live in caves called houses, again for comfort and security. Virtually no one would willingly sleep on the ground under the stars. Is it possible that someday we may seek to add further to our comfort and security by building our houses underground — in new, manmade caves? 这是一个带有比较状语从句的句子,对不同的地点进行比较,即there (in caves) 和in the open。比较状语从句中常可以将主句中已出现的成分省略掉。比较状语从句中的would have (done)是虚拟语气,表示与过去的事实不相符。 It is much colder this week than (it was) last week. 这个星期比上个星期冷多了。 If we had been here a little earlier, we would have caught the bus. 如果我们早来一会儿就会赶上汽车了。

  41. Article3-4_S_It may not Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. How do you explain the word ‘palatable’? It may not seem a palatable suggestion, at first thought. We have so many evil associations with the underground. In our myths and legends, the underground is the realm of evil spirits and of the dead, and is often the location of an afterlife of torment. (This may be because dead bodies are buried underground, and because volcanic eruptions make the underground appear to be a hellish place of fire and noxious gases.) Yet there are advantages to underground life, too, and something to be said for imagining whole cities, even mankind generally, moving downward; of having the outermost mile of the Earth’s crust honeycombed with passages and structures, like a gigantic ant hill. Palate, the top part of the inside of the mouth, was once generally held to be the organ of taste. So “palatable” means “pleasant to the taste”. Here used figuratively, it means “agreeable to the mind” or “acceptable”. It doesn’t seem to be a palatable suggestion to drive home in such bad weather; I prefer to stay until it clears up. 在这样的坏天气里开车回家似乎不是一个恰当的建议。我宁愿等到天晴。 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 乍一看来,这似乎不是一个恰当的建议。

  42. Article3-4_S_Yet there are1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. What is the meaning of “something to be said for”? It may not seem a palatable suggestion, at first thought. We have so many evil associations with the underground. In our myths and legends, the underground is the realm of evil spirits and of the dead, and is often the location of an afterlife of torment. (This may be because dead bodies are buried underground, and because volcanic eruptions make the underground appear to be a hellish place of fire and noxious gases.) Yet there are advantages to underground life, too, and something to be said for imagining whole cities, even mankind generally, moving downward; of having the outermost mile of the Earth’s crust honeycombed with passages and structures, like a gigantic ant hill. Say something (much / little) for: say something (much / little) in support of 支持,赞同(很支持 / 不支持) There is really little to be said for this project. Whether he would be chosen, there is much to be said for his personality. Make sentences with the following patterns: 1) There is little to be said for … 2) There is something to be said for … 3) There is plenty to be said for … 4) There are things to be said for …

  43. Article3-4_S_Yet there are2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Analyze the structure of the long sentence. It may not seem a palatable suggestion, at first thought. We have so many evil associations with the underground. In our myths and legends, the underground is the realm of evil spirits and of the dead, and is often the location of an afterlife of torment. (This may be because dead bodies are buried underground, and because volcanic eruptions make the underground appear to be a hellish place of fire and noxious gases.) Yet there are advantages to underground life, too, and something to be said for imagining whole cities, even mankind generally, moving downward; of having the outermost mile of the Earth’s crust honeycombed with passages and structures, like a gigantic ant hill. 句中分号将句子分为两部分,分号后的of having…与前面的to underground life…是句子的并列成分,相当于Yet there are advantages to underground life… and there are advantages of having… 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 然而生活在地下也有其有利之处,设想将整座城市,乃至全人类搬入地下是有一定道理的。如果在地壳最表层一英里厚的地方筑满通道和建筑物,就象一个巨大的蜂巢,这将会给人类带来各种好处。

  44. Article6_S_the tyranny Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Paraphrase the sentence. Second, local time would no longer be important. On the surface, the tyranny of day and night cannot be avoided, and when it is morning in one place, it is noon in another, evening in still another and midnight in yet another. The rhythm of human life therefore varies from place to place. Underground, where there is no externally produced day, but only perpetual darkness, it would be artificial lighting that produces the day and this could be adjusted to suit man’s convenience. The cruel fact that the shift of day and night cannot be avoided. 2. What can we infer from the sentence? The human beings living on the surface of the earth are always subject to the shift of day and night; we must follow the schedule of light and dark without any freedom of choice. 3. Translate the sentence. 昼夜交替这一严酷的事实是难以避免的。

  45. Article7-8_S_The whole Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. In what voice is the sentence? The whole world could be on eight-hour shifts, starting and ending on the stroke everywhere, at least as far as business and community endeavors were concerned. This could be important in a freely mobile world. Air transportation over long distances would no longer have to entail “jet lag.” Individuals landing on another coast or another continent would find the society they reached geared to the same time of day as at home. Third, the ecological structure could be stabilized. To a certain extent, mankind encumbers the Earth. It is not only his enormous numbers that take up room; more so, it is all the structures he builds to house himself and his machines, to make possible his transportation and communication, to offer him rest and recreation. All these things distort the wild, depriving many species of plants and animals of their natural habitat — and sometimes, involuntarily, favoring a few, such as rats and roaches . The sentence is in subjunctive mood, indicating the future. 2. Analyze the grammar structure of the sentence. Starting and ending …是现在分词引导的状语,表示伴随状况。 3. What does “community endeavors” mean ? It means public service and activities. 4. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 整个世界都可以实行八小时轮班制,各地都在同一时间上下班,至少公务活动和社会活动可以如此。

  46. Article7-8_S_Air transportation Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Paraphrase the sentence. The whole world could be on eight-hour shifts, starting and ending on the stroke everywhere, at least as far as business and community endeavors were concerned. This could be important in a freely mobile world. Air transportation over long distances would no longer have to entail “jet lag.” Individuals landing on another coast or another continent would find the society they reached geared to the same time of day as at home. Third, the ecological structure could be stabilized. To a certain extent, mankind encumbers the Earth. It is not only his enormous numbers that take up room; more so, it is all the structures he builds to house himself and his machines, to make possible his transportation and communication, to offer him rest and recreation. All these things distort the wild, depriving many species of plants and animals of their natural habitat — and sometimes, involuntarily, favoring a few, such as rats and roaches . Transportation by air over long distances would not have to make necessary “jet lag”. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 远距离的空中旅行将不再非有时差不可。

  47. Article9_S_If the works Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. What do “works” stand for? If the works of man were removed below ground — and, mind you, below the level of the natural world of the burrowing animals — man would still occupy the surface with his farms, his forestry, his observation towers, his air terminals and so on, but the extent of that occupation would be enormously decreased. Indeed, as one imagines the underground world to become increasingly elaborate, one can visualize much of the food supply eventually deriving from hydroponic growth in artificially illuminated areas underground. The Earth’s surface might be increasingly turned over to park and to wilderness, maintained at ecological stability. Here “works” stand for “all the roads and buildings”. 2. Paraphrase the sentence. If the roads and buildings of man were moved below, and, please note, below the level of …

  48. Article9_S_The Earth’s Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Paraphrase the sentence. If the works of man were removed below ground — and, mind you, below the level of the natural world of the burrowing animals — man would still occupy the surface with his farms, his forestry, his observation towers, his air terminals and so on, but the extent of that occupation would be enormously decreased. Indeed, as one imagines the underground world to become increasingly elaborate, one can visualize much of the food supply eventually deriving from hydroponic growth in artificially illuminated areas underground. The Earth’s surface might be increasingly turned over to park and to wilderness, maintained at ecological stability. More and more of the earth’s surface might be saved for park and wildness, kept at ecological balance. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 地球表面有可能越来越多地让位于公园和荒野,保持生态平衡。

  49. Article12-13_S_but however Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. “However+形容词+主语+谓语”的句式 In an underworld culture, the countryside would be right there, a few hundred yards above the upper level of the cities — wherever you are. The surface would have to be protected from too frequent, or too intense, or too careless visiting, but however carefully restricted the upward trips might be, the chances are that the dwellers of the new caves would see more greenery, under ecologically healthier conditions, than dwellers of surface cities do today. However odd and repulsive underground living may seem at first thought, there are things to be said for it — and I haven’t even said them all. “However+形容词+主语+谓语”的句式相当于“Although …”句式, 引导让步状语从句,意思是“不管……如何”。 2. “(the) chances are that” 的句式 “(the) chances are that”是非正式的口语表达方式,意思是“很可能”。 3. Analyze the voice of the sentence. The dwellers of the new caves would see … than dwellers of surface cities do…将未来新洞穴里的居民与今天地面城市的居民进行比较,主句中的would see是虚拟语气,表示对将来情况的推测。 4. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 但不管对向上的旅行做出多么认真的限制,新洞穴里的居民将有可能比今天地面城市的居民在更为健康的生态条件下见到更多的绿色。

  50. Article12-13_S_However Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Paraphrase the sentence. In an underworld culture, the countryside would be right there, a few hundred yards above the upper level of the cities — wherever you are. The surface would have to be protected from too frequent, or too intense, or too careless visiting, but however carefully restricted the upward trips might be, the chances are that the dwellers of the new caves would see more greenery, under ecologically healthier conditions, than dwellers of surface cities do today. However odd and repulsive underground living may seem at first thought, there are things to be said for it — and I haven’t even said them all. No matter how strange and unpleasant underground living may seem at first consideration, there is still a lot to be said to support the idea — and I haven’t even mentioned them all. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 尽管地下生活乍想起来是多么的奇怪和不那么令人喜欢,仍然有很多好处可以举出——而我在这里只不过是略说一二。