BR_MAIN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

br main n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
BR_MAIN PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 111
BR_MAIN
194 Views
Download Presentation
sissy
Download Presentation

BR_MAIN

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. BR_MAIN Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Warm-up Questions 2. An English Song — I Eat the Colors of the Rainbow 3. Sesame Street 4. Nicolas Copernicus 5. Häagen-Dazs and Reuben Mattus 6. Edward Jenner

  2. Before Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Warm-up Questions Look at the three pictures of an orange, a tomato and a strawberry. Which one does not belong to the same group as the other two? Why?

  3. Before Reading_2_1_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading An English Song — I Eat the Colors of the Rainbow Listen to an English song — I Eat the Colors of the Rainbow from Sesame Street. Can you give the names of the fruits? Which one is your favorite? ■

  4. Before Reading_2_1_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading I eat the colors of the rainbow... Veggies and fruit that help me grow Red...red...some of my favorite foods are: Apples, cherries, strawberries and tomatoes Orange...orange...some of my favorite foods are: Carrots, oranges, peach and sweet potato Yellow...yellow corn and lemon Pineapple and banana... Green...green spinach (菠菜) and broccoli (甘蓝) Lettuce, peas, and kiwi... Blue...blue...The only food I eat that’s blue is Blueberries! I eat the colors of the rainbow... “Hey! What about us?” Purple, egg plant, plums and grapes... So every day— I eat the colors of the rainbow...

  5. Before Reading_3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Sesame Street ■

  6. Before Reading_3.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Sesame Street Sesame Street is an educational American children’s television series designed for preschoolers, and is recognized as a pioneer of the contemporary standard which combines education and entertainment in children’s television shows. It is produced in the United States by Sesame Workshop, and broadcasted on November 10, 1969 on the National Educational Television network. Because of its positive influence, Sesame Street has earned the distinction of being the foremost and most highly regarded educator of children in the world. No television series has matched its level of recognition and success on the international stage. The original series has been televised in 120 countries, and more than 20 international versions have been produced. In its long and illustrious history, Sesame Street has received more Emmy Awards than any other program, and has captured the allegiance, esteem, and affection of millions of viewers worldwide. ■

  7. Before Reading_4_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) Copernicus was a Polish astronomer and mathematician who held the view that the Earth and the other planets all travel in circles around the Sun. “Finally we shall place the Sun himself at the center of the Universe. All this is suggested by the systematic procession of events and the harmony of the whole Universe, if only we face the facts, as they say, ‘with both eyes open’.” — Copernicus

  8. *A Brief Introduction of Nicolas Copernicus • * Copernicus’ Chronology • * The Copernicus Universe • * Copernicus’ Two Followers — Galileo and Bruno Before Reading_4_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading

  9. Before Reading_4_2_a brief…1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Brief Introduction of Nicolas Copernicus

  10. Before Reading_4_2_a brief…2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Brief Introduction of Nicolas Copernicus

  11. Before Reading_4_2_a brief…3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Born on Feb. 19, 1473, in Thorn (Torun), Poland, Copernicus is said to be the founder of modern astronomy. The son of a prosperous merchant, he was raised after his father’s death by a maternal uncle. At the age of nineteen, he was sent to the University of Krakow to study mathematics, optics (光学) and canon (基督教教规) law in Italy. This experience stimulated young Copernicus to study further liberal arts at Bologna (1496-1501), medicine at Padua, and law at the University of Ferrara, from which he emerged in 1503 with the doctorate in canon law. Shortly afterward, he returned to Poland and eventually settled permanently at the cathedral near his hometown. Through his uncle’s influence he had been elected canon of the cathedral. Copernicus not only faithfully performed his duties, but also turned his attention to astronomy. In 1530, Copernicus completed and gave to the world his great work De Revolutionibus, which asserted that the earth rotated on its axis (地轴线) once daily and traveled around the sun once yearly. Not welcomed by the church, it was not published until 1543. Copernicus died on May 24, 1543. ■

  12. Before Reading_4_2_Copernicus…1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Copernicus’ Chronology Date Event be born in Thorn (Torun), Poland Feb 19, 1473 be sent to the University of Krakow in Italy 1492

  13. Before Reading_4_2_Copernicus…2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Event Date study liberal arts at Bologna, medicine at Padua, and law at the University of Ferrara 1496~1501 1503 get the doctorate in canon law outline his great work De Revolutionibus 1514

  14. Before Reading_4_2_Copernicus…3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Event Date 1530 give the world his great work DeRevolutionibus die May 24, 1543

  15. Before Reading_4_2_The Copernicus1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The Copernicus Universe

  16. Before Reading_4_2_Copernicus Universe Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Three Assumptions in the Development of Astronomy Assumption 1 The earth was the center of the universe. Assumption 2 uniform circular motion in the heavens Assumption 3 Objects in the heavens were made from a perfect, unchanging substance not found on the Earth. ■

  17. Before Reading_4_2_Copernicus Revolution Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The Copernican Revolution We noted earlier that the three assumptions held back the development of modern astronomy from the time of Aristotle until the 16th and 17th centuries. Copernicus challenged Assumption 1, but not Assumption 2. We may also note that the Copernican model implicitly questions the third tenet that the objects in the sky were made of special unchanging stuff. Since the Earth is just one of the planets, there will eventually be a natural progression to the idea that the planets are made from the same stuff that we find on the Earth.

  18. Before Reading_4_4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Copernicus’ Two Followers — Galileo and Bruno It is said that Copernicus’ book was only published at the end of his life because he feared ridicule and disfavor. However, two other Italian scientists of the time, Galileo and Bruno, embraced the Copernican theory unreservedly and as a result, suffered much personal injury at the hands of the powerful church inquisitors. Bruno had the braveness to even go beyond Copernicus, and, dared to suggest that space was boundless and that the sun and its planets were but one of any number of similar systems — there even might be other inhabited worlds with rational beings equal or possibly superior to ourselves. For such blasphemy, Bruno was burned to death at the stake in 1600. Galileo was brought forward in 1633, and, there, in front of his “betters,” he was, under the threat of torture and death, forced to his knees to renounce all belief in Copernican theories, and was thereafter sentenced to imprisonment for the remainder of his days. ■

  19. Before Reading_4_4_Galileo Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Galileo Italian astronomer and physicist (1564~1642)

  20. Before Reading_4_4_Giordano Bruno Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Giordano Bruno Italian philosopher (1548~1600)

  21. Before Reading_5 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Häagen-Dazs and Reuben Mattus

  22. Before Reading_5_Reuben Mattus Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Reuben Mattus, a young entrepreneur with a passion for quality and a vision for creating the finest ice cream, worked in his mother’s ice cream business selling fruit ice and ice cream pops from a horse drawn wagon in the bustling streets of the Bronx, New York. To produce the finest ice cream available, he insisted on using only the finest, purest ingredients. The family business grew and prospered throughout the 1930s, 40s and 50s, and by 1961 Mr. Mattus decided to form a new company dedicated to his ice cream vision. He called his new brand Häagen-Dazs, to convey an aura of the old-world traditions and craftsmanship to which he remained dedicated. Häagen-Dazs started out with only three flavors: vanilla, chocolate and coffee. But Mr. Mattus’ passion for quality soon took him to the four corners of the globe. The Häagen-Dazs brand quickly developed a loyal following. Then in 1976, Mr. Mattus’ daughter Doris opened the first Häagen-Dazs shop. It was an immediate success, and its popularity led to a rapid expansion of Häagen-Dazs shops across the country. ■

  23. Before Reading_6_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Edward Jenner Edward Jenner: a pioneer in vaccination Date of Birth May 17, 1749 Birth Place in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire ■

  24. Before Reading_6_1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Edward Jenner was an English country doctor who pioneered vaccination. Edward Jenner was born on May 17, 1749 in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire. From an early age Jenner was a keen observer of nature and after nine years as a surgeon’s apprentice he went to St. George’s Hospital, London to study anatomy (解剖学) and surgery under the prominent surgeon Hohn Hunter. After completing his studies, he returned to his hometown Berkeley to set up a medical practice where he stayed until his death in 1823. In the eighteenth century, before Jenner, smallpox was a killer disease, as widespread as cancer or heart diseases in the twentieth century but with the difference that the majority of its victims were infants and young children. Edward Jenner pioneered vaccination. Jenner’s discovery in 1796 that vaccination with cowpox gave immunity (免疫) to smallpox, was an immense medical breakthrough and has saved countless lives. In 1980, as a result of Jenner’s discovery, the World Health Assembly officially declared “the world and its peoples” free from endemic smallpox. ■

  25. Before Reading_6_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Nationality British Subjects of Learning in London anatomy (解剖学) and surgery Working Experiences 1.He worked as a surgeon’s apprentice. 2.He set up a medical practice. Achievement He discovered vaccination with cowpox to give immunity to smallpox.

  26. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Further Understanding For Part 1 Questions and Answers For Part 2 Table Completion For Part 3 True or False For Part 4 Discussion

  27. Globe Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas 1 1 ~5 The author’s children teach him about paradigm shifts. 2 6~8 Three examples of shifting old paradigms in history. 3 9 ~12 The importance of shifting old paradigms. 4 The author encourages people to look at information in a new way. 13

  28. Globe Reading.2_1_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions and Answers 1. What were the author and his children playing that night? “What Doesn’t Belong?” based on the Sesame Street game. 2. What was the question the father put to his children? What doesn’t belong, an orange, a tomato or a strawberry? 3. What was the oldest child’s answer to the question? And what did the father think of his answer? The oldest child’s answer was that tomato doesn’t belong because it was not fruit and his father thought it was a right answer.

  29. Globe Reading.2_1_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 4. What answers did his 4-year-old and his 6-year-old children give? His 4-year-old chose strawberry because the other two were round and strawberry wasn’t, while the 6-year-old believed that orange didn’t belong because the other two were red. 5. Why did the 9-year-old and the middle one add to the answers? Because they did not want to be outdone by their siblings.

  30. Globe Reading.2_2_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Table Completion Examples Names He placed the sun at the center of the universe, readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of Earth-centered system. Copernicus He renamed his Bronx ice cream Häagen -Dazs and raised the price without changing the product. Reuben Mattus He discovered a vaccination for smallpox by abandoning his quest for a cure. Edward Jenner

  31. Globe Reading.2_3_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading True or False 1. If the game “what doesn’t belong?” had been a workbook exercise in school, each choice of the kids would have been acceptable. ( ) F If the game “what doesn’t belong?” had been a workbook exercise in school, every kid who didn’t circle tomato would have been marked wrong. 2. Almost all of the world’s most brilliant scientists and inventors were failures in school. ( ) F Many of the world’s most brilliant scientists and inventors were failures in school. 3. Only if we shift our paradigms and refocus our parameters can we take the great advantage of the super information highway. ( ) T

  32. Globe Reading2_3_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 4. Edward Jenner discovered a vaccination for smallpox by accumulating and uncovering more information. ( ) F Edward Jenner didn’t invent preventive medicine by accumulating information; but by reframing the question. 5. Copernicus didn’t do anything more Earth-shattering than completely change the way the universe was viewed. ( ) F Copernicus didn’t do anything less Earth-shattering than completely change the way the universe was viewed. 6. The key point is not the lack of information because what we need is not more information but new ways of looking at it. ( ) T

  33. Globe Reading.2_4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Discussion Do you agree with the author’s opinion that what we need as we begin to downshift onto the information highway is not more information but new ways of looking at it? Why or why not?

  34. Article_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading James Sollisch describes how his children’s ability to see things in fresh ways opened his own eyes to the nature of creative thinking.

  35. Article1-2_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Fruitful Questions James Sollisch The other night at the dinner table, my three kids—ages 9,6 and 4—took time out from their food fight to teach me about paradigm shifts, and limitations of linear thinking and how to refocus parameters. Here’s how it happened: We were playing our own oral version of the Sesame Street game, “What Doesn’t Belong?,” where kids look at three pictures and choose the one that doesn’t fit. I said, “OK, what doesn’t belong, an orange, a tomato or a strawberry?”

  36. Article3-5_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The oldest didn’t take more than a second to deliver his smug answer: “Tomato because the other two are fruits.” I agreed that this was the right answer despite the fact that some purists insist a tomato is a fruit. To those of us forced as kids to eat them in salads, tomatoes will always be vegetables. I was about to think up another set of three when my 4-year-old said, “The right answer is strawberry because the other two are round and a strawberry isn’t.” How could I argue with that? Then my 6-year-old said, “It’s the orange because the other two are red.” Not to be outdone by his younger siblings, the 9-year-old said, “It could also be the orange because the other two grow on vines.” The middle one took this as a direct challenge. “It could be the strawberry because it’s the only one you put on ice cream.”

  37. Article6_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Something was definitely happening here. It was messier than a food fight and much more important than whether a tomato is a fruit or vegetable. My kids were doing what Copernicus did when he placed the sun at the center of the universe, readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of an Earth-centered system. They were doing what Reuben Mattus did when he renamed his Bronx ice cream Häagen-Dazs and raised the price without changing the product. They were doing what Edward Jenner did when he discovered a vaccination for smallpox by abandoning his quest for a cure.

  38. Article7-8_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Instead of studying people who were sick with smallpox, he began to study people who were exposed to it but never got sick. He found that they’d all contracted a similar but milder disease, cow pox, which vaccinated them against the deadly smallpox. They were refocusing the parameters. They were redefining the problems. They were reframing the questions. In short, they were doing what every scientist who’s ever made an important discovery throughout history has done, according to Thomas Kuhn, in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: They were shifting old paradigms.

  39. Article9-10_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But if this had been a workbook exercise in school, every kid who didn’t circle tomato would have been marked wrong. Every kid who framed the question differently than “Which is not a fruit?” would have been wrong. Maybe that explains why so many of the world’s most brilliant scientists and inventors were failures in school, the most notable being Albert Einstein, who was perhaps this century’s most potent paradigm-shifter. This is not meant to be a critique of schools. Lord knows, that’s easy enough to do. This is, instead, a reminder that there are real limits to the value of information. I bring this up because we seem to be at a point in the evolution of our society where everyone is clamoring for more technology, for instant access to ever-growing bodies of information.

  40. Article11-12_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Students must be online. Your home must be digitally connected to the World Wide Web. Businesses must be able to download volumes of data instantaneously. But unless we shift our paradigms and refocus our parameters, the super information highway will lead us nowhere. We are not now, nor have we recently been suffering from a lack of information. Think how much more information we have than Copernicus had four centuries ago. And he didn’t do anything less Earth-shattering (pun intended) than completely change the way the universe was viewed. He didn’t do it by uncovering more information—he did it by looking differently at information everyone else already had looked at. Edward Jenner didn’t invent preventive medicine by accumulating information; he did it by reframing the question.

  41. Article13_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading What we need as we begin to downshift onto the information highway is not more information but new ways of looking at it. We need to discover, as my kids did, that there is more than one right answer, there is more than one right question and there is more than one way to look at a body of information.We need to remember that when you have only a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.

  42. Article1-2_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Fruitful Questions James Sollisch The other night at the dinner table, my three kids—ages 9,6 and 4—took time out from their food fight to teach me about paradigm shifts, and limitations of linear thinking and how to refocus parameters. Here’s how it happened: We were playing our own oral version of the Sesame Street game, “What Doesn’t Belong?,” where kids look at three pictures and choose the one that doesn’t fit. I said, “OK, what doesn’t belong, an orange, a tomato or a strawberry?”

  43. Article3-5_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The oldest didn’t take more than a second to deliver his smug answer: “Tomato because the other two are fruits.” I agreed that this was the right answer despite the fact that some purists insist a tomato is a fruit. To those of us forced as kids to eat them in salads, tomatoes will always be vegetables. I was about to think up another set of three when my 4-year-old said, “The right answer is strawberry because the other two are round and a strawberry isn’t.” How could I argue with that? Then my 6-year-old said, “It’s the orange because the other two are red.” Not to be outdone by his younger siblings, the 9-year-old said, “It could also be the orange because the other two grow on vines.” The middle one took this as a direct challenge. “It could be the strawberry because it’s the only one you put on ice cream.”

  44. Article6_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Something was definitely happening here. It was messier than a food fight and much more important than whether a tomato is a fruit or vegetable. My kids were doing what Copernicus did when he placed the sun at the center of the universe, readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of an Earth-centered system. They were doing what Reuben Mattus did when he renamed his Bronx ice cream Häagen-Dazs and raised the price without changing the product. They were doing what Edward Jenner did when he discovered a vaccination for smallpox by abandoning his quest for a cure.

  45. Article7-8_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Instead of studying people who were sick with smallpox, he began to study people who were exposed to it but never got sick. He found that they’d all contracted a similar but milder disease, cow pox, which vaccinated them against the deadly smallpox. They were refocusing the parameters. They were redefining the problems. They were reframing the questions. In short, they were doing what every scientist who’s ever made an important discovery throughout history has done, according to Thomas Kuhn, in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: They were shifting old paradigms.

  46. Article9-10_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But if this had been a workbook exercise in school, every kid who didn’t circle tomato would have been marked wrong. Every kid who framed the question differently than “Which is not a fruit?” would have been wrong. Maybe that explains why so many of the world’s most brilliant scientists and inventors were failures in school, the most notable being Albert Einstein, who was perhaps this century’s most potent paradigm-shifter. This is not meant to be a critique of schools. Lord knows, that’s easy enough to do. This is, instead, a reminder that there are real limits to the value of information. I bring this up because we seem to be at a point in the evolution of our society where everyone is clamoring for more technology, for instant access to ever-growing bodies of information.

  47. Article11-12_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Students must be online. Your home must be digitally connected to the World Wide Web. Businesses must be able to download volumes of data instantaneously. But unless we shift our paradigms and refocus our parameters, the super information highway will lead us nowhere. We are not now, nor have we recently been suffering from a lack of information. Think how much more information we have than Copernicus had four centuries ago. And he didn’t do anything less Earth-shattering (punintended) than completely change the way the universe was viewed. He didn’t do it by uncovering more information—he did it by looking differently at information everyone else already had looked at. Edward Jenner didn’t invent preventive medicine by accumulating information; he did it by reframing the question.

  48. Article3-5_S_To those of… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The oldest didn’t take more than a second to deliver his smug answer: “Tomato because the other two are fruits.” I agreed that this was the right answer despite the fact that some purists insist a tomato is a fruit. To those of us forced as kids to eat them in salads, tomatoes will always be vegetables. I was about to think up another set of three when my 4-year-old said, “The right answer is strawberry because the other two are round and a strawberry isn’t.” How could I argue with that? Then my 6-year-old said, “It’s the orange because the other two are red.” Not to be outdone by his younger siblings, the 9-year-old said, “It could also be the orange because the other two grow on vines.” The middle one took this as a direct challenge. “It could be the strawberry because it’s the only one you put on ice cream.” 1. What is the grammatical function of “forced as kids to eat them in salads”? Paraphrase the sentence. It is a past participle modifying “those of us”. To those of us who were forced to eat tomatoes in salads during childhood, they surely belong to vegetables. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 对我们这些从小就被迫吃拌在色拉里的西红柿的人来说,西红柿永远是蔬菜。

  49. Article6_S_It was messier Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Something was definitely happening here. It was messier than a food fight and much more important than whether a tomato is a fruit or vegetable. My kids were doing what Copernicus did when he placed the sun at the center of the universe, readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of an Earth-centered system. They were doing what Reuben Mattus did when he renamed his Bronx ice cream Haagen-Dazs and raised the price without changing the product. They were doing what Edward Jenner did when he discovered a vaccination for smallpox by abandoning his quest for a cure. 1. What can we infer from the sentence? We can infer from the sentence that the game is not as simple as it appears. It inspires us to think more behind the game itself. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 这事儿比争抢食物还乱,比西红柿是水果还是蔬菜重要得多。

  50. Article9-10_S_Maybe that… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But if this had been a workbook exercise in school, every kid who didn’t circle tomato would have been marked wrong. Every kid who framed the question differently than “Which is not a fruit?” would have been wrong. Maybe that explains why so many of the world’s most brilliant scientists and inventors were failures in school, the most notable being Albert Einstein, who was perhaps this century’s most potent paradigm-shifter. This is not meant to be a critique of schools. Lord knows, that’s easy enough to do. This is, instead, a reminder that there are real limits to the value of information. I bring this up because we seem to be at a point in the evolution of our society where everyone is clamoring for more technology, for instant access to ever-growing bodies of information. What is the implied meaning of the sentence? So far, the education system has not been very successful.