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The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam. Stearns, Chapter 11. The Pre-Islamic World. Bedouin Social organization = clans Shaykhs , slave families, rivalries Constant fighting Mecca dominated by Umayyad clan Medina is disputed territory

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the pre islamic world
The Pre-Islamic World
  • Bedouin
  • Social organization = clans
  • Shaykhs, slave families, rivalries
  • Constant fighting
  • Mecca dominated by Umayyad clan
  • Medina is disputed territory
  • Women have status and don’t wear veils
  • Why does Islam flourish here?
muhammad
Muhammad
  • Muhammad
  • Khadijah
  • 610- revelations
  • Quran
  • Umayyads plot against him – why?
  • Flees Mecca to Medina
  • Hijra – flight (622)
  • Treaty in 628 with Quraysh
slide5

The new religion offers society…

  • Monotheism
  • Umma
  • Ethical system
  • Zakat
  • Universal Elements….
  • Five pillars
  • Ramadan
  • Hajj
the idea of a caliphate
The idea of a caliphate
  • Term combining the ideas of a leader, successor, and deputy (of the Prophet)
  • Abu Bakr was the first caliph; 2 years
  • Muslim teaching maintained that there is no distinction between the temporal and spiritual domains; social law is a basic strand in the fabric of comprehensive religious law.
  • Abu Bakr led many assaults; Ridda Wars
abu s successors
Abu’s successors
  • Umar, Uthman, Ali
  • Caliphate becomes an ‘institution’
  • Umar began conquests outside Arabia
  • Prohibited Arabs from assuming ownership of conquered territory
  • Collected taxes from non-Arabs; remained the minority (language)
  • Did not try to convert the conquered
uthman 644 656
Uthman (644-656)
  • Asserted the right of the caliph to protect the economic interests of the entire umma
  • Publication of the definitive text of Qur’an
  • Armies consisted of Muslim Arabs
  • Introduce Arabic as official language
  • Distinctive Muslim coinage; new order
  • Accused of nepotism; appointed power positions to family
  • Assassinated in 656
slide9
Ali
  • Refused to punish the soldiers that killed Uthman
  • Umayyads reject Ali’s claim to the throne
  • Warfare erupts; Ali’s experience gives him the upper hand
  • Battle of Siffin; accepts mediation
  • Mu’awiya (Uthman’s cousin) proclaimed caliph in Jerusalem
  • Ali was assassinated a year later
sunni and shi a split
Sunni and Shi’a split
  • Sunnis backed the Ummayad
  • Shi’a were supporters of Ali
  • Over the years differences have compounded
umayyad dynasty
Umayyad Dynasty
  • Mu’awiya switched capital to Damascus (Syria)
  • Reached from Spain to central Asia (biggest since the Romans)
  • ‘Arab conquest state’
  • Muslim Arabs only taxed for charity
  • Muslim warrior elite kept isolate
  • Intermarriage meant a loss of taxes
converts in the umayyad age
Converts in the Umayyad Age
  • Mawali
  • Still had to pay taxes; Received no share of the ‘booty’
  • Couldn’t get good gov’t positions; Not members but ‘clients’
  • Frustrated by the royal elaborate caliphal court
  • The hajib, or chamberlain, resisted access to the caliph, who now received visitors seated on a throne surrounded by bodyguards
umayyad decline and fall
Umayyad Decline and Fall
  • Royal harems
  • ‘aloof’ in their pleasure gardens and marble palaces
  • Soldiers in Iran began to resent orders from Damascus
  • Marched under the banner of ‘al-Abbas’, Muhammad’s uncle in 747
  • Shi’a and Mawali all help in the defeat
  • Umayyad are slaughtered (p 253)
abbasid empire
Abbasid Empire
  • New capital in Iraq
  • Gradually became more ‘Sunni’ although Shi’a continued to support them. Why?
  • Bureacrats, servents and slaves
  • Wazir – chief administrator, royal executioner
  • Integration of new converts; mass conversions
  • Growth of merchant class, urban expansion, dhows, guilds, slaves often rose to power
flowering of islamic learning
“Flowering of Islamic Learning”
  • Priceless works of Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Hippocrates, Ptolemy and Euclid were saved and written in Arabic
  • Material was spread throughout the empire
  • Made the Scientific Revolution possible
  • Read p 258 – Global Connections