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The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam PowerPoint Presentation
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The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

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The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

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  1. The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam Chapter 6 EQs: What is the history behind Islam? What are the teachings of Islam? How did Islam spread?

  2. Arabia…before Islam • Barely inhabited…those who did live there settled mainly near coastal plains • Main characteristics of the region: • Bedouin nomads who wander across the deserts • They bounce from oasis to oasis trading goods or herding animals • Each have an established “territory” usually surrounding a “wadi”, an flat plain of a dry river bed, with a well

  3. A Culture of Rivalry • Clans were composed of related peoples and clans migrated together • Survival in this harsh environment relied upon interdependence within the clan • The clan was led by the shaykhs (sheiks), elder men who dictated clan life • Clans fought clans for dominance, most wars were over land and wells • Captured clan members were most often taken as slaves for the victorious clan

  4. Bedouin Practices • Arab culture was not complex • There was little art, architecture or other social contributions worth noting • One major “city” = Mecca • There was an aura of mysticism about Bedouin life, emphasized in their poetry • Religion was animistic and polytheistic…they recognized the one supreme god (Allah) of the soon-to-be founded Islam…but most notably they did not take their gods/religion very seriously

  5. Enter Muhammad • Born 570 CE in Mecca • Lost both parents at young age • Was lucky to be born in a wealthy clan, traveled extensively with his uncle (less wealthy than parents), was exposed to both Jewish and Christian faiths as well as other belief systems • By his 20s he was working for Khadijah, the widow of a wealthy merchant, whom he married

  6. Muhammad the Prophet • HOW DID ISLAM COME INTO BEING? • Muhammad was troubled by idol worship and all the negative things he saw in Bedouin society • He had a vision, from the angel Gabriel, calling on him to be a messenger of God • Muhammad was persecuted for promoting belief in one God • Muhammad fled to Yathrib in 622 CE (now known as Medina) on a journey known as the hijra (622 CE is the holy beginning year for Islam) • Those in Medina welcome Muhammad and his followers grew • He attacked the people of Mecca, destroyed their idols and began uniting all Arabs under his religion

  7. The Five Pillars of Islam • The basis of Islam is 5 things (rules) its followers must adhere to in their daily lives: • 1. Affirmation of faith in God (Allah) • 2. Daily Prayer – face east (Mecca) 5 times a day and pray • 3. Charity – must give to the poor and enfeebled • 4. Fasting – During Ramadan, not eating, sunrise to sunset • 5. Pilgrimage – hajj, Every able bodied Muslim must go to Mecca once in their life • Jihad or struggle in God’s service, is noted as another duty that some Muslims practice

  8. The Spread of Islam Begins • The effects of Muhammad’s teachings were quite significant • UNITY! – It gave the divided Arab clans one single God • It was Arab in origin (appealing) but still directly paralleled Christian and Jewish monotheism • It was simple, no complex rituals, no saints or different ideologies – ONE BOOK, ONE AUTHORITY = the Qur’an • Muslim law (Sharia) based on the Qur’an • Brought end to the clan feuding/vendettas • Transformed the Bedouins from “savage nomads” into civilized people • Because Muhammad’s faith was all accepting and tolerant, numerous people from the Middle East, to North Africa and Southeast Asia (particularly India) eventually accepted Islam

  9. Leadership Issues • Despite Muhammad’s successes in providing UNITY, his death in 632 complicated matters • It left the Arabs without a clear leader…many candidates wanted to expand the Muslim society into other areas while other did not • Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s closest friend) was chosen (after Muhammad’s own son-in-law was passed over) as caliph…he continued expansion with LITTLE/NO HELP from the Umayyads in Mecca

  10. The Conquests • Muslim invaders were naturally full of zeal to spread their faith to other areas, the more converts the better, HOWEVER they also wanted to control areas where people did not convert • Muslim leaders were naturally interested in controlling wealth and riches in other areas • In order to get money, the levied a jizya on non-believers, though mawali or recent converts, still had some taxes to pay…in any case, wealth was as great a motivation for spreading Islam as was glory of spreading Allah’s word, but they were NOT the primary reason for Muslim success

  11. The Conquests • Spreading Islam in the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Mediterranean was easy because… • The Byzantine and Sassanian (Persian) Empires were weak…Zoroastrianism lacked popular roots in Persia and was becoming repressed • The Byzantines were more resilient in fending off Arab invaders, yet still lost valuable territory to them in Syria, Israel and Egypt • In the end, the general weakness of these empires to maintain a foothold on their outlying territory allowed for the easy expansion of Islam

  12. The Sunni/Shi’a Problem • Despite all this success, their was STILL a large division in Muslim society, further complicated by the sudden death of Abu Bakr in 634 CE • The problem was succession of leadership, and there were 2 different schools on the matter: • Sunnis – believed that the caliph should be chosen by religious leaders and NOT a religious leader (most Umayyads) • Shiites – believed that only direct descendants of Muhammad should be caliph (Ali) • These differences further complicated practices, rituals and aspects of the faith (like women veiling, tribute, the meaning of jihad)

  13. The Umayyad Imperium • By the end of the 7th/Early 8th century CE, differences were somewhat settled and the business of expansion continued • The Umayyads established their capital at Damascus, Syria, though Mecca remained the holy city • They created a bureaucratic administration with a strong military dominated by elite Muslim Arabs…their method of territorial control was to leave warrior garrisons in fortresses separated from the common people in major towns throughout the empire • Again, converts, though not prevented from interacting, marrying or cavorting with members of the Muslim elite, STILL had to pay taxes, received little or no support from the Umayyad government and were in general seen as just clients of Muslim society • As a result, the rate of conversion to Islam during the Umayyad Imperium was much lower than future empires, as people so no real need to convert to avoid major penalties

  14. Family/Gender Roles in Umayyad Society • Women had a favorable status (same as was done when the Arabs were Bedouins) • Adultery was forbidden, HOWEVER, men could have 4 wives and women could only have 1 husband…all WOMEN had to be treated equally no matter what • Women had greater freedom to receive inheritance and a divorce • The only thing women were not allowed to do was be a priest (Imam) and lead prayers or other religious rituals

  15. Umayyad Decline and Fall • The spoils of victory and a decline in military power lead to the downfall of the Umayyad Imperium • Many Muslim groups within the empire saw the Umayyads as committing sins against Allah, leading to revolts, many of which came from remote border areas (Merv) • Soldiers who had settled there began to see less and less from the central treasury in Damascus…when Damascus tried to replace them with new soldiers, they revolted • Eventually, the Abbasid clan gained supporters from Merv and other outlying regions…most of these supporters were Shi’a (Umayyads were Sunni) • Led by Abu al-Abbas, he Abbasids defeated the Umayyads in 750 CE, and made sure to assassinate/wipe out any remaining Umayyad clan leaders…though some retreated to Spain

  16. THIS WEEK… • Read Chapter 6 and do your dialectical journal • Tuesday: Conflict Analysis – Sunni v. Shiite • Wednesday: Compare and Contrast Umayyads and Abassids • Thursday: DBQ Practice on the Spread of Islam • Friday: TEST on C6…notes due

  17. Umayyads and Abbasids • Societal Comparison – Pages 130-142 • I am going to assign you a number, and you will fill/figure out the sections associated with that number • We will discuss this as a class in about 20 minutes • 1: Political and Intellectual/Technological • 2: Social and Military • 3: Economic and Geographic • 4: Artistic and Demographic • 5: Religious and Women’s Status