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World War II

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  1. World War II Rise of Dictatorships Holocaust Beginning of WWII Home Front Preparations Atlantic Front & Pacific Front Peace Talks

  2. Main Idea • Rise of Dictators- A failed treaty, changing Europe, and a global Depression led to the reemergence of nationalism and dictatorship.

  3. Reemergence of European Nationalism Introduction

  4. Key words to know • Communism- is a socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. • Fascism- is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and social interests secondary to the interests of the state or party • Nazism- German brand of fascism • Totalitarianism- state regulation of nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.

  5. Characteristics of a Totalitarian State • Extreme Nationalist • Government Control • Anti-Semitic • Militaristic • Single Party- lacks democracy • Rule by terror- secret police • Control of Media- propaganda

  6. Failures of WWI Treaty • Caused anger and resentment (Germany and Russia) • Germany blamed for the war • Colonies were stripped • New democracies struggled • Many new countries lack democratic tradition. With lack of tradition people were not willing to let things get worse before they got better!!!

  7. Post WWI map of new territories

  8. Joseph Stalin Transforms USSR • The Model Communist State • National Agriculture and Industry became the primary goals • Stalin abolished privately owned farms and turned them into collectives • Stalin created five-year plans that directed industrial growth (1937 2nd largest) • Through fear and terror (Great Purge) Stalin created a Totalitarian state. (1939)

  9. Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel”

  10. USSR symbol represents ideas

  11. Rise of Fascism in Italy • Benito Mussolini and his Black Shirts • Economic Crisis and Fear of Communism opened the door for Fascism • 1921 fascist party created, by 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of “black shirts” • Declared himself the Il Duce “the leader” • Totalitarian state in joint rule with the King

  12. Benito Mussolini

  13. Symbol of the Fascist

  14. The Nazis Take Over Germany • Adolf Hitler’s rise to power! • 1919 Hitler joins Nazi party • Hitler tries to over through the government (Munich Beer Hall Revolution) and gets thrown in jail were he writes Mein Kempf. (Lays the ground work for Nazi Germany) • Great Depression- war debts, fear of communism, lack of American loans, run away inflation, etc.

  15. The Nazis take over Germany • Hitler’s rise to power • Many agitated un-employed Germans joined Hitler’s “brown shirts” • By 1932 Nazis had become the strongest party in the Reichstag • 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor and destroyed the Weimer Republic and created the Third Reich

  16. Hitler hoisting a Nazi Flag

  17. Main Idea • Holocaust- systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews.

  18. Holocaust • Why Jews? • Scapegoats for causes and failures of the German economy and defeat of WWI

  19. Holocaust • Under the Nuremburg Laws, Jews were subjected to economic, social, and legal restrictions which made it virtually impossible to do anything. • Government employees were let go • Lost German citizenship • Jobs • Property • Forced to wear Star of David

  20. Holocaust • Kristallnacht- “Night of Broken Glass” • Nazi storm troopers (SS) attacked Jewish homes businesses, and synagogues. Nov. 9-10 1938 • 30,000 Jews were arrested and many others were moved into ghettos • Jews tried to flee to other countries, but nobody wanted them.

  21. Holocaust • “Final Solution”- policy of genocide • Wished to create a master race of Aryans • Political opponents, gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, physically handy capped, mentally ill, etc. • From ghettos to concentration camps • Concentration camps- labor camps or death camps

  22. Holocaust • Mass Extermination • Most death camps were in Poland • Prisoners went through countless inspections (selection) • Strong worked, weak were gassed, shot, burned, drowned, etc. • Experiments done on Jews • Six million Jews died during the holocaust

  23. Entrance to Auschwitz

  24. Woman about to be executed

  25. Jews rescued by Canadian Forces

  26. Survivors

  27. Children of the Holocaust

  28. Survivor idea number

  29. Jews rounded up for the Ghetto or transport!

  30. Picture of Star of David on coats

  31. Bags of hair

  32. Beginning of WWII Expansion of the German Empire Invasion of Poland Invasion of France Battle for Britain Operation Barbarossa

  33. Main Idea • Beginning of Hostility- Dictators’ imperialistic pursuits and appeasement by world powers set World War II in motion.

  34. Beginning of War Clouds of War Write three key points in your notes!!!!

  35. Aggression in the World • Militarist gain control of Japan • Hideki Tojo- Japanese nationalist • Manchurian Crisis 1931(imperialistic pursuit of raw materials) • Italy becomes imperialistic • 1935 Ethiopian crisis • Civil War in Spain 1936 • Francisco Franco (Fascist) receives support from Hitler and Mussolini to establish a totalitarian state in Spain

  36. Japanese Empire 1932

  37. Italian Invasion of Ethiopia

  38. Map of Europe prior to WWI

  39. Hitler moves to build his Empire • Hitler pushes for more “Lebensraum” • Lebensraum- mean living space for Germans • In 1935 Hitler begins to rebuild the military • Rhineland- Hitler moves troops into a demilitarized zone 1936 • Austria (March 12, 1938) • Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact (September 30, 1938) • Appeasement- giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.

  40. Hitler's Empire • Hitler’s expansion into Poland and the start of WWII • Great deal of German speaking people living in Poland • Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939) • Germany attacks Poland and by Sept. 3 BR & FR declare war on Germany • War Comes to Europe • Write three key points!!!

  41. Main Idea • German Blitz: Germany’s use of technology and superb strategy allowed them to dominate the early years of the war.

  42. World War II Begins: German Blitz • For the next several months German and the Allied troops stared at each other at the Maginot Line (Phony War) • Meanwhile… Stalin annexed former Russian possessions and took control of Poland. • Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway through military deception then turned against the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. • Fall of France in June of 1940

  43. 1 2 3 5 4

  44. Battle for Britain • Operation Sea Lion • All out invasion of Britain • British controlled the sea, so Hitler would try to control the air • Round the clock bombing of Britain • Radar, Ultra, and RAF saved Britain from annihilation.

  45. Hitler’ s big mistake Operation Barbarossa