World War II Rise of Dictatorships Holocaust Beginning of WWII Home Front Preparations Atlantic Front & Pacific Front Peace Talks
Main Idea • Rise of Dictators- A failed treaty, changing Europe, and a global Depression led to the reemergence of nationalism and dictatorship.
Reemergence of European Nationalism Introduction
Key words to know • Communism- is a socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. • Fascism- is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and social interests secondary to the interests of the state or party • Nazism- German brand of fascism • Totalitarianism- state regulation of nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State • Extreme Nationalist • Government Control • Anti-Semitic • Militaristic • Single Party- lacks democracy • Rule by terror- secret police • Control of Media- propaganda
Failures of WWI Treaty • Caused anger and resentment (Germany and Russia) • Germany blamed for the war • Colonies were stripped • New democracies struggled • Many new countries lack democratic tradition. With lack of tradition people were not willing to let things get worse before they got better!!!
Joseph Stalin Transforms USSR • The Model Communist State • National Agriculture and Industry became the primary goals • Stalin abolished privately owned farms and turned them into collectives • Stalin created five-year plans that directed industrial growth (1937 2nd largest) • Through fear and terror (Great Purge) Stalin created a Totalitarian state. (1939)
Rise of Fascism in Italy • Benito Mussolini and his Black Shirts • Economic Crisis and Fear of Communism opened the door for Fascism • 1921 fascist party created, by 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of “black shirts” • Declared himself the Il Duce “the leader” • Totalitarian state in joint rule with the King
The Nazis Take Over Germany • Adolf Hitler’s rise to power! • 1919 Hitler joins Nazi party • Hitler tries to over through the government (Munich Beer Hall Revolution) and gets thrown in jail were he writes Mein Kempf. (Lays the ground work for Nazi Germany) • Great Depression- war debts, fear of communism, lack of American loans, run away inflation, etc.
The Nazis take over Germany • Hitler’s rise to power • Many agitated un-employed Germans joined Hitler’s “brown shirts” • By 1932 Nazis had become the strongest party in the Reichstag • 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor and destroyed the Weimer Republic and created the Third Reich
Main Idea • Holocaust- systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews.
Holocaust • Why Jews? • Scapegoats for causes and failures of the German economy and defeat of WWI
Holocaust • Under the Nuremburg Laws, Jews were subjected to economic, social, and legal restrictions which made it virtually impossible to do anything. • Government employees were let go • Lost German citizenship • Jobs • Property • Forced to wear Star of David
Holocaust • Kristallnacht- “Night of Broken Glass” • Nazi storm troopers (SS) attacked Jewish homes businesses, and synagogues. Nov. 9-10 1938 • 30,000 Jews were arrested and many others were moved into ghettos • Jews tried to flee to other countries, but nobody wanted them.
Holocaust • “Final Solution”- policy of genocide • Wished to create a master race of Aryans • Political opponents, gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, physically handy capped, mentally ill, etc. • From ghettos to concentration camps • Concentration camps- labor camps or death camps
Holocaust • Mass Extermination • Most death camps were in Poland • Prisoners went through countless inspections (selection) • Strong worked, weak were gassed, shot, burned, drowned, etc. • Experiments done on Jews • Six million Jews died during the holocaust
Beginning of WWII Expansion of the German Empire Invasion of Poland Invasion of France Battle for Britain Operation Barbarossa
Main Idea • Beginning of Hostility- Dictators’ imperialistic pursuits and appeasement by world powers set World War II in motion.
Beginning of War Clouds of War Write three key points in your notes!!!!
Aggression in the World • Militarist gain control of Japan • Hideki Tojo- Japanese nationalist • Manchurian Crisis 1931(imperialistic pursuit of raw materials) • Italy becomes imperialistic • 1935 Ethiopian crisis • Civil War in Spain 1936 • Francisco Franco (Fascist) receives support from Hitler and Mussolini to establish a totalitarian state in Spain
Hitler moves to build his Empire • Hitler pushes for more “Lebensraum” • Lebensraum- mean living space for Germans • In 1935 Hitler begins to rebuild the military • Rhineland- Hitler moves troops into a demilitarized zone 1936 • Austria (March 12, 1938) • Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact (September 30, 1938) • Appeasement- giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
Hitler's Empire • Hitler’s expansion into Poland and the start of WWII • Great deal of German speaking people living in Poland • Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939) • Germany attacks Poland and by Sept. 3 BR & FR declare war on Germany • War Comes to Europe • Write three key points!!!
Main Idea • German Blitz: Germany’s use of technology and superb strategy allowed them to dominate the early years of the war.
World War II Begins: German Blitz • For the next several months German and the Allied troops stared at each other at the Maginot Line (Phony War) • Meanwhile… Stalin annexed former Russian possessions and took control of Poland. • Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway through military deception then turned against the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. • Fall of France in June of 1940
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Battle for Britain • Operation Sea Lion • All out invasion of Britain • British controlled the sea, so Hitler would try to control the air • Round the clock bombing of Britain • Radar, Ultra, and RAF saved Britain from annihilation.
Hitler’ s big mistake Operation Barbarossa