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Chapter 2. The Rise & fall of the Roman empire. Romulus and Remus. Mythical version: *Romulus and Remus – twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess *Abandoned and cared for by she-wolf *Romulus kills Remus; becomes 1 st king of Rome Historical version:

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rome s beginnings romulus and remus

Mythical version:

*Romulus and Remus – twin sons of the god Mars

and a Latin princess

*Abandoned and cared for by she-wolf

*Romulus kills Remus; becomes 1st king of Rome

Historical version:

*Latins settled on Palatine around 1200 B.C.

*Etruscans rule Rome (Latins) from 800-500 B.C.

*Romans overthrow Etruscan leaders and set

up a Republic in 509 B.C.

Rome’s Beginnings:Romulus and Remus
expansion of the roman republic

Romans conquered & controlled all of Italy by 275 B.C.

City-state Carthage ruled much of North Africa, Spain, & Sicily

Roman conflict with Carthage started the Punic Wars

Romans fought Carthaginians for control of Mediterranean Sea

Hannibal defeated in 2nd Punic War; Carthage lost all its territories to Romans

By 146 B.C., Rome was the leading power of the Mediterranean Sea

Expansion of the roman republic
final years of the roman republic julius caesar

Rome’s conquests cause changes in economy & govt

*gap grows between rich & poor

*large estates replaced small farms

*cities become crowded

  • Julius Caesar built up army & took power

*conquered Britain, Libya, Egypt, Syria & Asia Minor

*Caesar assassinated by those who opposed his


Final Years of the Roman Republic:Julius Caesar
the roman empire cleopatra s death

After Caesar’s death, civil war breaks out between Mark Antony and Octavian

Octavian wins naval battle at Actium 31 B.C.

Octavian becomes absolute ruler of Rome = given the title “Augustus” (honored)

Augustus ends expansion of the Empire at its defensible boundaries

“PaxRomana” = a time of peace & unity for the Empire

The Roman Empire: Cleopatra’s death
the roman empire gladitorial games

Five Good Emperors rule Rome between A.D. 96 – 186

Trajan, last great conqueror, establishes 4 new provinces

Empire reaches greatest height under Trajan in A.D. 117

After A.D. 186, civil war breaks out in the Empire and emperors lose control

Rome’s size difficult to manage; Diocletian divides it in two

Constantine emerges as leader in A.D. 312 – moves capital to Constantinople & legalizes Christianity

The Roman Empire: Gladitorial Games
the roman empire gladitorial games1

Barbarians attack the empire from many sides

Internally, gladitorial games are a sign of Rome’s decline

The Roman Empire: Gladitorial Games
the quiz

In the mythical version of the founding of Rome, who was the first king of Rome?

In the historical version of the founding of Rome, what group settled on the Palatine in 1200 B.C.?

What is the conflict between the Romans and the Carthaginians called?

What famous Carthaginian general was defeated in the 2nd Punic War?

The Quiz
the quiz1

5. Name two places Rome conquered in the Punic Wars.

6. Name two places conquered by Julius Caesar.

7. How did Julius Caesar’s reign come to an end?

8. Who was victorious at Actium in 31 B.C.?

9. What title was Octavian given when he became the absolute ruler of Rome?

10. What does“PaxRomana” mean?

The Quiz
the quiz2

11. When did the Roman Empire reach its greatest size?

12. Which emperor is considered the last great conqueror?

13. Who divided the empire to make it more manageable?

14. Which emperor legalized Christianity?

15. Give one possible reason for the collapse of the Roman Empire.

The Quiz