Pablo Picasso, (left) Portrait of the Artist's Mother, 1896, pastel on paper, Museo Picasso, Barcelona, Spain; (right) First Communion, 1895/6. The artist was 14 to 15 years old
Picasso, La Vie, 1903, 6’5” x 4’2” “Blue Period” Symbolism(right) Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? 1897-98 Symbolism
Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906 (“Proto-Cubist”)
Picasso, Les Demoiselles D’Avignon, 1907, 8’/7’8” (proto-Cubism, Primitivism, Expressionism)
(left) Georges Braque (French, 1882-1963) in his Paris studio, early 1912 (right) Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973) in his Paris studio, late 1911 In spite of out very different temperaments, we were guided by a common idea . . . .the differences didn’t count. . . . We lived in Montmartre, we saw each other every day, we talked. . . . It was a little like being roped together on a mountain. Georges Braque on his friendship with Picasso and the formulation of Cubism, 1908-1914
(left) Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie (Woman with a Guitar), 1911(right) Georges Braque, The Portuguese (The Emigrant), 1911Analytic Cubism
Georges Braque, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass, 1913, charcoal and various papers pasted on paper, collage (papier collé), 1’7”x 2’1”
Picasso, Still life With Chair Caning, 1912, collage of oil, oilcloth, pasted paper on oval canvas surrounded by rope. Synthetic Cubism
Picasso, Maquette for Guitar, 1912, cardboard, string and wire(right) Grebo mask owned by Picasso
Dada rejects rational thought "Dada" arrived in almost all major Western cities between 1916 and 1922/3 5 main sites: Zurich, Paris, New York, Berlin, Cologne “Revolted by the butchery of the 1914 World War, we in Zurich devoted ourselves to the arts. While the guns rumbled in the distance, we sang, painted, made collages and wrote poems with all our might. We were seeking an art based on fundamentals, to cure the madness of the age, and a new order of things that would restore the balance between heaven and hell.” - Jean (Hans) Arp
Hugo Ball (German,1886 -1927) performing Dada phonetic poem "karawane" on stage at Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich 1916"Art for us is an occasion for social criticism, and for a real understanding of the age we lived in"
Jean (Hans) Arp, Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance, 1916-17, torn and pasted paper, 19 x 13” "Art is a fruit that grows in man, like a fruit on a plant, or a child in its mother's womb." - Jean Arp
Marcel Duchamp (French-American, 1887-1968) Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2, 1912, oil on canvas, 58 x 35”Futurist style painting
Marcel Duchamp. Bottle Rack, 1914/64, bottle rack made of galvanized ironBicycle Wheel, 1913, “Readymade”: bicycle wheel, mounted on a stoolFirst “readymade” Originals are lost
Marcel Duchamp (A.K.A. R. Mutt), Fountain, 1917, New York DADADuchamp chose his objects on the basis of "visual indifference…as well as a total absence of taste, good or bad."
Marcel Duchamp, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) 1915-23, oil, lead wire, foil, dust, and varnish on glass, 8’11” x 5’7”http://youtu.be/lmag4vL7hnQ
Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitsky, American, 1890-1976) Gift, 1921Duchampian "ready-made assisted" & Surrealist "uncanny" object
(left) Man Ray, Érotique voilée (1934-35) Meret Oppenheim behind printing press(right) Meret Oppenheim (German, 1913-1985), Object (Luncheon in Fur) 1936, fur covered cup, saucer, spoon, two views, Surrealism 1936 photo of Object by Dora Maar
Giorgio de Chirico, (Greek-Italian,1888-1978), The Melancholy and Mystery of a Street, 1914, oil on canvas, 34 x 28,” Metaphysical School, precursor of Surrealism
“Naturalist” or “Hand Painted Dream” SurrealismRené Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967) The Treachery of Images, 1928-29, oil on canvas, 23 x 31”, LACMA, Deconstruction
René Magritte, Les Valeurs Personnelles (Personal Values), 1952, 31 x 39” oil on canvas, SFMOMA, Surrealism John Baldessari at 2007 exhibition he designed: Treachery of Images: René Magritte and Contemporary Art. LACMA
AUTOMATONS and mannequins: “Dolls” are made of wood, metal, papier-mâché and dressed with wigs, clothing, etc. or notHans Bellmer (Polish, 1902-75), La Poupée (Doll), 1935-49, hand colored gelatin silver print. (right) Bellmer, La Poupée, 1935-36: (center) La Poupée), 1934; gelatin silver prints. Surrealist photography The art object is the photograph, not the sculpture.
Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali, frames from Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog), Surrealist film, France, 1928. Eyes, insects, metamorphosis, erotics, madness of the dream & subconscious
METAMOPHOSIS OF FORMSalvador Dali (Spanish, 1904-89) (left below) interpreted photograph, Paranoic Face, 1931 from Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution, no.3. “voluntary hallucination" = the "critical paranoic method"(right) Dali, Apparition of a face and a Fruit Dish, oil on canvas, 1930 I think the time is rapidly coming when it will be possible…to systematize confusion thanks to a paranoiac and active process of thought, and so assist in discrediting completely the world of reality.” - Dali
Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931oil on canvas, 9 x 13,” MoMA NYC “The transcription of reveries.” Hand-painted dream photographs. Dali’s morphological aesthetics of the soft and hard and the search for form: “un-form” (Informe) Cape Creus, Catalonia
Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937, oil on canvas, 11’6” x 25’8”, Madrid
BIOMORPHISM + POPULAR CULTUREJoan Mirò (Spanish), Painting, 1933, oil on canvas, 5’8” x 6’5” MoMA, NYC (right) source collage of clippings from equipment catalogues
Frida Kahlo (Mexican) What the Water Yields Me, oil on canvas,1938 Imogen Cunningham, Frida Kahlo in San Francisco, 1931
Alberto Giacometti (Swiss), The Palace at 4 a.m., 1932-3, 2 views, construction in wood, glass, wire, and string, 25 x 28 x 16”, MoMA NYC. Surrealist constructed sculpture 1932 sketch indicates pre-conception
THE END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL(left) Hitler occupies Paris, 1940Artists in the Artists in Exile show at the Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, March, 1942. Left to right, first row: Matta, Ossip Zadkine, Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, Marc Chagall, Fernand Léger; second row: André Breton, Piet Mondrian, André Masson, Amédée Ozenfant, Jacques Lipchitz, Pavel Tchelitchew, Kurt Seligmann, Eugene Berman
The German occupation of France in World War II occurred between May 1940 and December 1944. German-occupied France is in red; so-called "Free zone" in blue (also occupied from November 1942). Regions of Alsace and Lorraine, annexed by the Third Reich, in deep red.
END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOLMax Ernst, Europe After the Rain, 1940-42, oil on canvas, 21 x 58,” automatist technique of decalcomania, which involves pressing paint between two surfaces