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Welcome . CCA, Chennai 10 th October 2007. Radio Frequency spectrum. Radio frequency spectrum and satellite orbits are limited natural resources. Radio frequencies are arbitrarily confined between 3 kHz and 3000 GHz. Do not respect or obey international geographical boundaries.

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CCA, Chennai

10th October 2007

radio frequency spectrum
Radio Frequency spectrum
  • Radio frequency spectrum and satellite orbits are limited natural resources.
  • Radio frequencies are arbitrarily confined between 3 kHz and 3000 GHz.
  • Do not respect or obey international geographical boundaries.
  • Susceptible to harmful interference and requires application of complex engineering tools to ensure interference-free operation of various wireless networks.
radio frequency spectrum3
Radio Frequency Spectrum
  • Radio Frequency Spectrum is a limited natural resource.
  • It can only be shared amongst various countries, services, users, technologies, etc.
  • Assignment of frequencies is governed by international Radio regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the National Frequency Allocation Plan.
radio frequency spectrum continued
Radio Frequency Spectrumcontinued
  • The limitation of radio frequency spectrum, a natural resource, is mainly due to:
      • Propagation characteristics of radio waves;
      • Availability of technology and equipment for different applications;
      • Suitability of frequency bands for specific applications.
  • Demands on spectrum have always been more than its availability.
establishment of wpc wing
Establishment of WPC Wing

Governments of India constituted the Wireless Planning and Coordination Branch (subsequently re-designated as Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing) in the year 1952 vide Ministry of Communications (re-designated as Ministry of Communications & I.T.) order No.1-E (5)/52 dated the 8th October, 1952 to deal with all matters related to radiocommunication services in India. The functions of this Branch, (subsequently changed to Wing), were also identified:

wpc wing
WPC Wing
  • Wireless Planning & Coordination (WPC), Wing of the Department of Telecommunication, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology functions as an impartial, non-user, non-service provider, national spectrum management and radio regulatory nodal agency without any direct or indirect linkage with any wireless user organisation.  
  • The Wing is responsible for radio frequency spectrum management and all other related activities in the country.
statutory provisions for grant of wireless licence
Statutory provisions for grant of wireless licence
  • The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 (ITA, 1885) and rules made there under - for grant of licence for establishment, maintenance or working of wireless apparatus, equipment and appliances.
  • The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933 (IWTA 1933) and rules made there under, - for grant of licence for possession of wireless apparatus, equipment and appliances.
  • Wireless Planning and Coordination (WPC) Wing of Ministry of Communications & IT exercises powers of the Central Government for grant of such licences under Section 4 of the ITA, 1885 and Section 5 of IWTA 1933.
accepted policy and guiding principles
Accepted policy and guiding principles
  • New Telecom Policy 1999 (NTP-99)

- Spectrum be utilized efficiently, rationally economically and optimally;

- Need for a transparent process of allocation of frequency spectrum.

  • National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP)

- The NFAP forms the basis for development and manufacturing

of wireless equipment and spectrum utilisation in the country;

- NFAP-2002 is a public document containing detailed information regarding allocation of frequency bands for various services, without including security information;

- Draft NFAP-2005 is placed on WPC Wing website “”.

broad functions of wpc wing
Broad Functions of WPC Wing
  • Formulation of National Frequency Allocation Plans taking into account spectrum requirement of new emerging technologies, existing wireless usages and international regulations;
  • National nodal agency for all matters related to radiocommunication aspects of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and Asia Pacific Telecommunity (APT);
broad functions of wpc wing contd
Broad Functions of WPC WingContd..
  • Assignment of frequencies with associated technical parameters for all wireless networks in the country - Government, Public and Private networks;
  • Site clearance of all wireless installations in the country and related matters concerning the Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocations (SACFA);
  • Licensing of all Wireless Stations in the country under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 (ITA 1885) and Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933;
broad functions of wpc wing contd11
Broad Functions of WPC Wingcontd..
  • Awarding Certificate of Proficiency to Radio Officers / Pilots working onboard ships and aircraft, as per international regulations;
  • Grant of licences to Radio Amateurs after conduct of examinations as per International Regulations;
  • Direction   and   control of   Wireless   Monitoring Organisation (WMO), a field organisation of the WPC Wing.
spectrum allotment procedure
Spectrum Allotment Procedure
  • In the case of licensed Telecom Service Providers:
    • Initial allotment in accordance with relevant provisions of the service License Agreement;
    • For serving larger number of subscribers, either larger amount of spectrum or more number of Base Stations are required;
    • Additional spectrum is required at some stage as techno-economic solution to meet the growth;
    • Additional spectrum allotted based of justification and fulfillment of prescribed criteria, subject to availability;
    • Criteria has been evolved to ensure efficient and optimal utilisation of allotted spectrum.
  • Standing Advisory Committee on radio Frequency Allocations (SACFA) is an interdepartmental committee chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Communications & IT.
  • Technical heads of fifteen major wireless user Ministries/ Departments are its members.
  • Wireless Adviser is one of its members. WPC Wing provides the secretariat for SACFA.
  • Joint Wireless Adviser is its member Secretary.
procedure for siting clearance
Procedure for Siting Clearance
  • The technical evaluation is carried out primarily for
    • Aviation Hazard
    • Obstruction to line of sight of existing/planed networks.
    • Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI)/ Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) to other existing and proposed networks.
categories of siting applications
Categories of siting applications
  • Full siting clearance
  • Mast Height Clearance - up to 30m from ground
  • Additional Antenna - on already cleared masts/towers
  • Mast height exemption - examination by WPC Wing only.
challenges for spectrum management
Challenges for Spectrum Management
  • The radiocommunication technologies are evolving at a much faster rate;
  • Spectrum requirement of new emerging technologies are to be met without unduly constraining the existing usages;
  • Historically, spectrum was allotted, mostly to Government agencies, on need based, where higher commercial requirement was not envisaged;
  • There are  growing, conflicting  and competing demands on the spectrum by all wireless users;
challenges for spectrum management continued
Challenges for Spectrum ManagementContinued
  • Trend of modern telecommunications is towards mobility with higher data rate, requiring more spectrum;
  • Frequency bands required for such technologies are already in use in India and need protracted coordination, re-farming and relocations in some cases;
  • Requirement of spectrum by all sectors has increased manifold for variety of applications;
frequency bands for 2g 3g technologies

Frequency Bands for 2G & 3G Technologies

GSM 900 890-915 MHz paired with 935-960 MHz

GSM 1800 1710-1785 MHz paired with 1805-1880 MHz

CDMA 800 824-844 MHz paired with 869-889 MHz

Cor-DECT 1880-1900 MHz (TDD - unpaired)

IMT 2000 1920–1980 MHz paired with 2110–2170 MHz

(3G) 2010 – 2025 MHz (TDD – unpaired)

imt 2000 bands
IMT 2000 Bands
  • As per National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP) 2002, the core IMT 2000 (3G) band1920 – 1980 MHz paired with 2110 – 2170 MHz is earmarked for Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode and 2010 – 2025 MHz for Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode.
  • Personal Communication System (PCS) bands 1850 – 1910 MHz paired with 1930 -1990 MHz.
  • For IMT-2000 systems, band 1920 – 1980 MHz is used for uplink {(Handset to Base Transmitting Station (BTS)}.
imt 2000 bands contd
IMT 2000 Bands (Contd…)
  • For PCS system, 1930 – 1990 MHz is used for down link (BTS to Handset).
  • This phenomena is known as ‘duplex reversal’.
  • Simultaneous use of both IMT-2000 and PCS equipment in the same area results in high RF transmit power of PCS (CDMA based) BTS causing severe co-channel / adjacent channel interference problems to BTS of IMT-2000.
  • For rapid growth of services in the country, various systems should use a homogenous frequency plan without harmful interference between such systems.
spectrum allocations in india nfap 2002

Mobile Transmit

Spectrum Allocations in India-NFAP 2002*





















IMT 2000(3G)










* Under Revision

spectrum charging for mw access and backbone of cdma networks before order dated 3 11 2006
Spectrum Charging for MW Access and Backbone of CDMA networks(before Order dated 3.11.2006)

Spectrum Charge = M x W x C

Where “M” = 1200 for MW link upto 5 kms

= 2400 for MW link above 5 kms and upto 25 kms

= 4800 for MW link above 25 kms and upto 60 kms

= 9000 for MW link above 60 kms and upto 120 kms

Where “W” = 30 for adjacent channel separation of 2 MHz

= 60 for adjacent channel separation above 2 MHz and upto 7 MHz

= 120 for adjacent channel separation above 7 MHz and upto 28 MHz

Where “C” = Number of RF channels used (2 for duplex network)


WPC Wing web-site

delicensed frequency bands
Delicensed Frequency bands
  • Use of low power equipment in the frequency band 2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz (G.S.R. 45 (E) 28th January, 2005)
  • Indoor use of low power wireless equipment in the frequency band 5.150 to 5.350 GHz and 5.725 to 5.875 GHz (G.S.R 46 (E) 28th January 2005)
  • Use of low power equipment in the frequency band 865 – 867 MHz for (RFID) Radio Frequency Identification Devices (G.S.R. 168 (E) 11th March, 2005)
  • Use of low power equipment in the 335 MHz band for remote control of cranes (G.S.R. 532 (E) 12th August, 2005)
  • Use of low power equipment in the Citizen band 26.957 – 27.283 MHz (G.S.R. 533 (E) 12th August, 2005)
  • Use of low power equipment in the frequency band 5.825 GHz to 5.875 GHz (G.S.R. 38 (E) 19th January, 2007)