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Chapter 11 Emotional Development. Temperament – basic behavioral style Types: categories vs. dimensions. Thomas, Chess, & Birch – categories Easy (40%) - positive mood - regular body functions - low-moderate reactions - positive toward new situations - adaptable. Difficult (10%)

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chapter 11 emotional development
Chapter 11Emotional Development
  • Temperament – basic behavioral style
  • Types: categories vs. dimensions
slide2
Thomas, Chess, & Birch – categories
  • Easy (40%)

- positive mood

- regular body functions

- low-moderate reactions

- positive toward new situations

- adaptable

slide3
Difficult (10%)

- negative mood

- irregular body functions

- intense reactions

- negative toward new situations

slide4
Slow-to-warm-up (15%)

- low activity level

- somewhat negative mood

- withdraws from new situations

- slow to adapt

  • Mixed characteristics (35%)
slide5
Buss & Plomin – dimensions
  • emotionality
  • activity level
  • sociability
slide6
Biological basis
  • sympathetic vs. parasympathetic system in emotionality
  • moderate stability over infancy

Thus, biology + environment

slide7
Implications for Parenting
  • Parents treat siblings differently but have general styles
slide8
Thomas, Chess, & Birch
  • Genetic differences in temperament influence

1. How children respond

2. How others respond to children

slide9
Any given practice may produce different responses
  • Child’s response depends on genetics
  • Parental flexibility is important
  • Different parenting strategies with children of different temperaments
slide10
Suggestions based on temperament:
  • Difficult child

- consistent, patient, nonpunitive

- clear guidelines with firm rules

slide11
Slow-to-warm child

- let adapt at own pace

- do not tease or punish for being shy

  • Easy child

- variety of approaches

slide12
Temperament is changeable
  • Environment heightens or diminishes child’s behavior
slide13
**“Goodness of fit” = easier development
  • Development is smoother when child’s temperament “fits” parenting style
  • Demands that conflict with child’s temperament -> stress
  • Higher potential for emotional/behavioral problems
slide14
“Goodness of fit” varies

- demands of different contexts

slide15
=> Neither temperament (nature) nor home environment (nurture) determines adjustment

** Goodness of fit

attachment
Attachment
  • First important relationship
theories of attachment
Theories of attachment
  • Bowlby - Ethology

- infant behaviors are biologically based & designed to elicit caregiving

slide18
Bowlby: adaptive significance of crying

1) infants’ needs are met

2) increased contact -> attachment

slide19
Attachment

- reciprocal

- cross-cultural

- infants are actively sociable

slide20
Learning theory

- attachment is based on mutual reinforcement

slide21
Current Perspective = Integration
  • Begins via sociobiological mechanisms
  • Maintained via reinforcement
slide22
Growth of Attachment
  • Discriminate people-objects

familiar vs. unfamiliar people

primary caregiver vs. familiar others

  • By 6 months, selectively attend to caregiver
attachment styles ainsworth s strange situation
Attachment StylesAinsworth’s Strange Situation
  • Mom, baby, observer 30 seconds
  • Mom, baby 3 minutes
  • Mom, baby, stranger 3 minutes
  • Baby, stranger < 3 minutes

- 1st separation

5. Mom, baby > 3 minutes

- reunion

slide24
Baby 3 minutes

- 2nd separation

7. Baby, stranger < 3 minutes

- 2nd, cont.

8. Mom, baby 3 minutes

- reunion

attachment styles
Attachment Styles

Secure (65-70%)

  • Upset when mom goes
  • Happy at reunion
  • Seek renewed contact
  • Explore/interact with strangers when she’s there
slide26
Insecure-avoidant (20%)
  • No distress at separation
  • Ignore returning mom
  • Uninterested in exploring when she’s there
  • Wary of/ignore strangers
  • Depressed/neglectful moms?
slide27
Insecure-ambivalent (10-15%)
  • Very upset during separation
  • Ambivalent at return

(glad but angry)

  • Wary of strangers, even with mom
  • Anxious/nonexploratory with mom
  • Chaotic/inconsistent moms?
slide28
Disorganized-disoriented (12?%)
  • No organized coping style
  • Contradictory behavior
  • Confused/anxious/depressed upon reunion
  • Abusive moms?
slide29
Consequences of Secure Attachment
  • Attachment model for other relationships
  • Better peer relations
  • But not necessarily abnormal adjustment if insecure
  • D-D = probably worse outcome
working moms daycare
Working Moms & Daycare

Negative Effects on Infants/Toddlers

  • None just because mom works

- compensate with extra attention

- same amount of “family time”

slide31
Non middle-class, 2-parent homes

- kids of single moms insecurely attached upon return to work

- some middle-class kids affected if mom returned to work in 1st year

- But: Not all kids are affected

determinants of adjustment
Determinants of Adjustment

1. Quality of alternative childcare

- small child-to-staff ratio

- warm, responsive caregivers

- little staff turnover

- age-appropriate activities

- teacher interaction w/parents

slide34
2. Parent attitudes about maternal employment

- moms = happier & sensitive to child if they get to choose

+ everyone is better adjusted if dad supports decision

slide35
3. Number of hours worked

(less important)

- > 40 hours/week = worse

slide36
Effects on School-Age Children
  • Positive effects, especially for girls

- better adjusted

- more independent

- less traditional sex-role beliefs

  • Depends on same factors as for infants