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Chapter 11 Emotional Development

Chapter 11 Emotional Development

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Chapter 11 Emotional Development

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  1. Chapter 11Emotional Development • Temperament – basic behavioral style • Types: categories vs. dimensions

  2. Thomas, Chess, & Birch – categories • Easy (40%) - positive mood - regular body functions - low-moderate reactions - positive toward new situations - adaptable

  3. Difficult (10%) - negative mood - irregular body functions - intense reactions - negative toward new situations

  4. Slow-to-warm-up (15%) - low activity level - somewhat negative mood - withdraws from new situations - slow to adapt • Mixed characteristics (35%)

  5. Buss & Plomin – dimensions • emotionality • activity level • sociability

  6. Biological basis • sympathetic vs. parasympathetic system in emotionality • moderate stability over infancy Thus, biology + environment

  7. Implications for Parenting • Parents treat siblings differently but have general styles

  8. Thomas, Chess, & Birch • Genetic differences in temperament influence 1. How children respond 2. How others respond to children

  9. Any given practice may produce different responses • Child’s response depends on genetics • Parental flexibility is important • Different parenting strategies with children of different temperaments

  10. Suggestions based on temperament: • Difficult child - consistent, patient, nonpunitive - clear guidelines with firm rules

  11. Slow-to-warm child - let adapt at own pace - do not tease or punish for being shy • Easy child - variety of approaches

  12. Temperament is changeable • Environment heightens or diminishes child’s behavior

  13. **“Goodness of fit” = easier development • Development is smoother when child’s temperament “fits” parenting style • Demands that conflict with child’s temperament -> stress • Higher potential for emotional/behavioral problems

  14. “Goodness of fit” varies - demands of different contexts

  15. => Neither temperament (nature) nor home environment (nurture) determines adjustment ** Goodness of fit

  16. Attachment • First important relationship

  17. Theories of attachment • Bowlby - Ethology - infant behaviors are biologically based & designed to elicit caregiving

  18. Bowlby: adaptive significance of crying 1) infants’ needs are met 2) increased contact -> attachment

  19. Attachment - reciprocal - cross-cultural - infants are actively sociable

  20. Learning theory - attachment is based on mutual reinforcement

  21. Current Perspective = Integration • Begins via sociobiological mechanisms • Maintained via reinforcement

  22. Growth of Attachment • Discriminate people-objects familiar vs. unfamiliar people primary caregiver vs. familiar others • By 6 months, selectively attend to caregiver

  23. Attachment StylesAinsworth’s Strange Situation • Mom, baby, observer 30 seconds • Mom, baby 3 minutes • Mom, baby, stranger 3 minutes • Baby, stranger < 3 minutes - 1st separation 5. Mom, baby > 3 minutes - reunion

  24. Baby 3 minutes - 2nd separation 7. Baby, stranger < 3 minutes - 2nd, cont. 8. Mom, baby 3 minutes - reunion

  25. Attachment Styles Secure (65-70%) • Upset when mom goes • Happy at reunion • Seek renewed contact • Explore/interact with strangers when she’s there

  26. Insecure-avoidant (20%) • No distress at separation • Ignore returning mom • Uninterested in exploring when she’s there • Wary of/ignore strangers • Depressed/neglectful moms?

  27. Insecure-ambivalent (10-15%) • Very upset during separation • Ambivalent at return (glad but angry) • Wary of strangers, even with mom • Anxious/nonexploratory with mom • Chaotic/inconsistent moms?

  28. Disorganized-disoriented (12?%) • No organized coping style • Contradictory behavior • Confused/anxious/depressed upon reunion • Abusive moms?

  29. Consequences of Secure Attachment • Attachment model for other relationships • Better peer relations • But not necessarily abnormal adjustment if insecure • D-D = probably worse outcome

  30. Working Moms & Daycare Negative Effects on Infants/Toddlers • None just because mom works - compensate with extra attention - same amount of “family time”

  31. Non middle-class, 2-parent homes - kids of single moms insecurely attached upon return to work - some middle-class kids affected if mom returned to work in 1st year - But: Not all kids are affected

  32. Determinants of Adjustment 1. Quality of alternative childcare - small child-to-staff ratio - warm, responsive caregivers - little staff turnover - age-appropriate activities - teacher interaction w/parents

  33. No detrimental effects of good care even as young as 3 months

  34. 2. Parent attitudes about maternal employment - moms = happier & sensitive to child if they get to choose + everyone is better adjusted if dad supports decision

  35. 3. Number of hours worked (less important) - > 40 hours/week = worse

  36. Effects on School-Age Children • Positive effects, especially for girls - better adjusted - more independent - less traditional sex-role beliefs • Depends on same factors as for infants