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### Chapter 7

College of Computer and Information Sciences

Information Technology Department

IT422 - Intelligent systems

Part 2

Introduction to Prolog

Introduction

- PROLOG = PROgramming in LOGic
- 1970: using logic as a programming language (R. Kowalski, M. Van Emden, A. Colmerauer from Edinburg and Marseille).
- 1972: First Prolog interpreter (Prolog0), Aix-Marseille, P. Roussel.
- 1982: Prolog software product in markets.
- 1995: extension CLP Constraint Logic Programming.

Introduction

- Procedural/Object Oriented Programming (PP/OOP) vs. Declarative Programming
- PP/OOP:a program instructs the computer
- what to do
- how to do
- in what order

- Declarative Programming:a program describes what to do without a detailed plan of how to do

- PP/OOP:a program instructs the computer

Introduction

- Prolog is the most widely used logic programming language.
- Prolog programs are set of definite clauses written in a notation somewhat different from standard FOL.
- Three basic mechanisms among others:
- Pattern Matching,
- Tree based data structuring
- Back-Tracking.

- Suitable for problems that involve structured objects and relations between them.
- The execution of Prolog programs is done through depth-first backward chaining search with no checks for infinite recursion.
- It allows symbolic computation.
- Examples:
- Red sphere is behind green box.
- If object X is closer to the observer than object Y and object Y is closer than object Z than X is closer than Z.

Introduction

- Prolog basic concepts by an example:
- Let’s consider the Parent relation

ali

layla

nour

omar

meriam

khaled

zahra

Defining Relations By Facts

- This relation can be defined by the following Prolog program:
- parent(leyla, omar).
- parent(ali, omar).
- parent(omar, meriam).
- parent(omar, khaled).
- parent(ali, nour).
- parent(khaled, zahra).

- This program consists of 6 Clauses. Each clause declares one fact about the relation parent.
- The clause parent(omar, meriam) is an instance of the relation parent. A relation is defined as a set of instances.

Using Prolog Program

- What can we do with this program?
- Let’s ask the system questions about the relation parent:
- Question: is omar parent of khaled?
- In prolog ?- parent(omar, khaled).
- Answer: yes

- Question: is omar parent of khaled?

Using Prolog Program

- Question: is leyla parent of meriam?
In prolog ?- parent(leyla, meriam).

- Answer: no

- Question: who is zahra’s parent?
In prolog ?- parent(X, zahra).

The system tells what is the value of X for which the statement is true.

- Answer: X= khaled

Using Prolog Program

- Question: who are omar’s children?
In prolog ?- parent(omar,X).

Answer: X= meriam

X= khaled

no

- Question: Who is parent of whom?
In prolog ?- parent(X,Y).

Answer: X= leyla Y=omar; X=ali Y=omar; X=omar Y=meriam; X=omar Y= khaled; X=ali Y=nour; X=khaled y=zahra;

Using Prolog Program

- Question: who is grandparent of khaled?
In prolog ?- parent(X, khaled), parent(Y, X).

Note: the logical meaning remains the same if we change the order of the two requirements.

Answer: X= omar Y= ali; X= omar Y=leyla

- Question: Who are ali grandchildren?
In prolog ?- parent(ali,X), parent (X,Y).

Answer: X= omar y=khaled; X=omar Y=meriam;

Using Prolog Program

- Question: Do meriam and nour have a common parent?
In prolog ?- parent(X, meriam), parent(X,nour).

First who is parent of meriam (X) ?

Second is it (X) the same parent of nour ?

Answerno

What can we conclude from this example

- It is easy in Prolog to define a relation such as parent by stating the n-tuples of objects that satisfy the relation. In this case we have defined a relation by a set of facts represented by clauses.
- We can easily express queries in Prolog.
- A Prolog program consists of clauses. Each clause terminates with a full stop.
- The arguments of relations can be: concrete objects, constants, general objects such as X and Y.
- Questions to the system consist of one or more goals. The answer can be positive (goal satisfiable) or negative (goal unsatisfiable).
- If several answers satisfy the question than Prolog will find as many of them as desired by the user.

Prolog Syntax

- Prolog system recognizes the type of an object in the program by its syntactic form.
- The syntax of Prolog specifies different forms for each type of data object.
- All data objects in Prolog are called TERMS.

Prolog Syntax

- Atoms and numbers:
- An atom can be constructed in three ways:
- String of letters, digits and the underscore ‘_’ starting with a lower case e.g. ali, x25, x_y…
- Strings of special characters e.g. <__>,::=, .. Predefined string: ‘:-’
- Strings of characters enclosed in single quotes e.g.‘Ali’, ‘Saudi-Arabia’…

Prolog Syntax

- Numbers:
- Used in Prolog include integer numbers and real numbers e.g.1997, -94, 0, 3.14, 0.0035….

- Variables:
- Strings of letters, digits and underscore characters. They start with an upper case letter or an underscore character e.g.X, Result, _23, _x33, _ , ….

- Note: Prolog uses anonymous variables _ that are represented by underscores in clauses.

Prolog Syntax

- Structures
- Structured objects = object that has several components. The components themselves can, in turn, be structures.
- e.g. date(1,may,2001), date(Day,may,2007)
- Note: This method for data structuring is simple and powerful symbolic manipulation.

- All structured objects can be pictured as trees.

Prolog Syntax

- Structures

D=date

T=triangle

1 may 2007

- point pointpoint

- Date(1,may,2007)

3 1 4 3 6 0

functor

arguments

T=triangle(point(3,1),point(4,3),point(6,0))

Defining Relations By Rules

- Fact ≠ Rule
- A fact is always, unconditionally, true.
- A rule specifies a thing that is true if some condition is specified. It has:
- a condition part (right hand side of the rule).
- a conclusion part (left hand side of the rule).

- A clause is written “backwards” from what we are used to.
Instead of A B => C

in Prolog we have C:- A, B.

- e.g. let’s define the relation offspring:
For all X and Y

Y is an offspring of X if

X is a parent of Y

Defining Relations By Rules

- Corresponding Prolog clause:
offspring (Y,X):-parent (X,Y)

head (conclusion part) body (condition part)

- Interpretation:
for all X and Y

if X is parent of Y then

Y is an offspring of X

Defining Relations By Rules

- If we ask the question: ?-offspring(khaled,omar).
- Y is substituted with khaled and X with omar: the process is called instantiation Y=khaled X=omar
- Offspring(khaled,omar):-parent(omar,khaled).
- Try to find whether the condition is true.
- The goal offspring(khaled,omar) is replaced with the goal parent(omar,khaled)

Defining Relations By Rules

- More complex rules:
- Let’s add the following facts:
female(leyla). male(omar).

female(nour). male(khaled).

female(meriam). male(ali).

female(zahra).

- Now, let’s define the relation mother:
For all X and Y

X is the mother of Y if

X is female and

X is parent of Y.

Defining Relations By Rules

- The corresponding Prolog rule is:
Mother(X,Y):-female (X) , parent(X,Y).

- Head (conclusion part): mother (X,Y)
- Body (condition part): female (X), parent(X,Y)
- ‘,’ : to express conjunction (AND operator).

Defining Relations By Rules

- Nodes correspond to objects: arguments of relations.
- Arcs between nodes correspond to binary relations. Arcs are oriented so as to point from the first to the second argument.
- Unary relations are represented by marking the corresponding node by the name of the relation.

X

X

X

offspring

parent

mother

parent

parent

grandparent

Y

Y

Y

parent

Z

Defining Relations By Rules

- Question: define the relation sister
- For any X and Y
- X is a sister of Y if
- Both X and Y have the same parent
- X is a female

- sister(X,Y):- female(X), parent(Z,X), parent(Z,Y).

Z

parent

parent

X

Y

sister

Defining Relations By Rules

- Let’s ask the question:
- is meriam sister of khaled?
- ?-sister(meriam,khaled).
- Another question: who is khaled’s sister?
- ?-sister(X,khaled).
- Think about ?-sister(X,meriam).

To summarize

- Prolog programs can be extended by simply adding new clauses.
- Prolog clauses are of three types: facts, rules and questions.
- Facts declare things that are always, unconditionally, true.
- Rules declare things that are true depending on a given condition.
- By means of questions the user can ask the program what things are true.
- Prolog clauses consist of the head and the body. The body is a list of goals separated by commas. Commas are understood as conjunctions.
- Facts are clauses that have a head and the empty body. Questions have only the body. Rules have a head and a body.
- Variables are instantiated when the system answers questions.
- Variables are assumed to be universally quantified (for all).

Defining Relations By Rules

- Recursive rules
Let’s define the relation predecessor.

First possibility

For all X and Z

X is a predecessor of Z if

X is a parent of Z.

Second possibility

For all X and Z

X is a predecessor of Z if

X is a parent of Y and

Y is a parent of Z.

Defining Relations By Rules

- Recursive rules
- More general definition:
- For all X and Z
- X is a predecessor of Z
- If there exits a Y such that
- X is a parent of Y
- Y is a predecessor of Z

- Corresponding Prolog clause
predecessor (X,Z):-

parent (X,Y),

predecessor(Y,Z).

Defining Relations By Rules

- Complete program for predecessor relation:
predecessor (X,Z):-

parent (X,Z).

predecessor (X,Z):-

parent (X,Y),

predecessor(Y,Z).

- This is a recursive definition of the relation predecessor.
- Question: who are ali’s successors?

Lists in Prolog

- Prolog allows manipulation of lists.
- Syntax:
a list always starts and ends with square brackets, and each of the items they contain is separated by a comma.

e.g. [first,second,third]

- Prolog also has a special facility:
- Split the first part of the list (called the head) away from the rest of the list (known as the tail).
- Place a special symbol | (pronounced 'bar') in the list to distinguish between the first item in the list and the remaining list.

- For example, consider the following. [first,second,third] = [X|Y]where X = first and Y=[second,third]
- [ ] /* this is a special list, it is called the empty list because it contains nothing */

Lists in Prolog

- Now lets consider some comparisons of lists:
- [a,b,c] unifies with [Head|Tail] resulting in Head=a and Tail=[b,c]
- [a] unifies with [H|T] resulting in H=a and T=[]
- [a,b,c] unifies with [a|T] resulting in T=[b,c]
- [a,b,c] doesn't unify with [b|T]
- [] doesn't unify with [H|T]
- [] unifies with []. Two empty lists always match

Lists in Prolog

Consider the following fact.

p([H|T], H, T).

Lets see what happens when we ask some simple queries.

?- p([a,b,c], X, Y).

X=a Y=[b,c]

Yes

?- p([a], X, Y).

X=a Y=[]

Yes

?- p([], X, Y).

no

Conclusion

- Clauses are statements about what is true about a problem, instead of instructions how to accomplish the solution.
- The Prolog system uses the clauses to work out how to accomplish the solution by searching through the space of possible solutions.
- Not all problems have pure declarative specifications. Sometimes extralogical statements are needed.

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