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Unit 8: Renaissance and Reformation. Politics. Daily Questions: - How did authors during the Renaissance portray and explore interactions among people? Conflicts? Rulers? - Did 2Pac embody the political ideals of Machiavelli? How?

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Unit 8: Renaissance and Reformation

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unit 8 renaissance and reformation

Unit 8: Renaissance and Reformation


  • Daily Questions:
  • - How did authors during the Renaissance portray and explore interactions among people? Conflicts? Rulers?
  • - Did 2Pac embody the political ideals of Machiavelli? How?
  • - What does that teach us about the political climate of the Renaissance?
warm up

3. “Europe is waking out of a long, deep sleep…time was when learning was only found in the religious orders…learning has passed to secular princes and peers.” This quotation best describes the

      • Renaissance
      • Decline of Roman Empire
      • Crusades
      • Rise in Christianity
  • If you finish early, then do the extra questions for extra credit
warm up reflection
Warm-up Reflection
  • How did you arrive at your answer?
  • What strategies did you use?
  • Why did you choose the answer you did?
  • Remember to:
    • LISTEN
    • BUILD
  • Philosophy – the study of knowledge, reality, existence and morals (right and wrong)
  • Political Science – hypothesizing and theorizing about politics (government)
  • Machiavelli – Italian political scientist and war analyst
  • The Prince – a book written by Machiavelli instructing a leader on how to gain and maintain power
niccolo machiavelli
Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Born May 3, 1469 in Florence, Italy
  • Middle class – humanistic education; studied business mathematics; worked as a banker in Rome.
  • Returned to Florence in 1494 to witness the banishment of the Medici family and watched GirolamoSavonarola
  • Political conflict to control Italy – between Florence, Milan, Venice, Naples, papacy, France, Spain and Holy Roman Empire
  • 1494: Charles VIII of France invaded Italy
  • Machiavelli makes a plea for Italian Unity to protect the peninsula from outsiders.
niccolo machiavelli1
Niccolo Machiavelli
  • 1498: Florence is a republic; Machiavelli is Head of the Second Chancery and Secretary to the Council of Ten for War.
  • 1500: Machiavelli was sent to France as a diplomat; met with Pope Alexander and French King Louis XII and CesareBorgia(duke of Romagna).
  • These men shaped Machiavelli’s ideas about leadership.
  • Borgia was cunning, cruel, vicious and despised, which were traits to unify Italy.
  • Machiavelli helped to start and train Florentine civil militia to reduce Italy’s dependence on mercenaries and was a diplomat.
niccolo machiavelli2
Niccolo Machiavelli
  • 1512: Medici regained control and Machiavelli was dismissed.
  • 1513: Machiavelli wrongly accused being part of a conspiracy to restore the republic, was jailed and tortured for 3weeks
  • Left Florence for a writing career. Began Discourses on First Ten Books of Titus Livius, which focuses on states controlled by politically active citizenry.
  • Stopped to write The Prince in order to win the favor of Lorenzo de’ Medici and re-enter politics, but Lorenzo ignored the book.
  • The book was criticized as immoral, evil and wicked.
  • Machiavelli wrote Discourses, The Prince, Art of War and Mandrake (a comedic play).
  • When Lorenzo died in 1519, Giulio Medici gave commission to write The Florentine History and with small diplomatic jobs.
the prince
The Prince
  • Machiavelli is most famous for The Prince
  • The Prince was written to give advice to new tyrants and others who wanted to gain and maintain power.
  • In it he discusses skill and luck (virtu).
tupak shakur
  • Born in 1971 in New York, NY
  • Son of a black panther activist, so he moved around a lot.
    • 127thStreet Ensemble (Harlem theater company)
    • Attended Baltimore School of Arts where he began to perform as MC New York.
  • Late 80’s: moved to the west coast and joined the Oakland hip-hop group Digital Underground.
  • 1991: released his first solo album 2Pacalypse Now, then Strictly for my N----- both platinum records.
  • His rap was known for explicit and violent lyrics, but he was known as a fun-loving, politically conscious ladies man.
tupak shakur1
  • 1994: he got accused in a sexual assault case.
  • Then, shot five times in a recording studio mugging.
  • After recovery, he was sentenced to 4 ½ years in jail
  • 1995: while imprisoned, 2Pac read The Prince and the Art of War, and then he began to call himself ‘Makavelli.’
    • wrote the album Me Against the World
  • Released after just 8 months because his label Death Row Records CEO Marion “Sage” Knight paid a bond of over a million as part of his parole.
  • Returned to music with All Eyez on Me and California Love with Dr. Dre.
  • On a trip to Las Vegas on September 13, 1996, he was shot while driving in a car with Knight and died from injuries.
  • His murder remains a mystery because some claim he is still alive. Others think Knight had something to do with it because Tupak intended to leave Death Row Records to form his own label called, Makavelli Records.
primary source analysis comparing machiavelli to makavelli
Primary Source Analysis: Comparing Machiavelli to Makavelli
  • Each table group will receive 2-3 quotes from The Prince and 2-3 2Pac song lyrics
  • Each student will fill out a chart to compare the texts
      • What is Machiavelli’s advice in The Prince?
      • What does Makavelli (2Pac) say in his lyrics?
      • How are these similar?
      • How are these different?
      • What does this tell you about WHY 2Pac may have been inspired by Machiavelli?
  • Each table will share out what they read in their sources based on the notes on their charts
journal reflection 3
Journal Reflection 3
  • Answer THREE of the following questions:
    • What did Machiavelli write about interactions among people?
    • What did Machiavelli write about conflicts?
    • What did Machiavelli write about rulers? And the role of “the prince” (or ruler)?
    • Why would Machiavelli come up with these ideas during the Renaissance (rather than the Middle Ages)?
    • Why is it that the ideals were so lasting as to be followed by people of modern day?
  • Homework: Write a rap based on Machiavelli’s ideals (PG-rated)
  • Collecting: #