European Exploration Unit Question: What are the political, economic, and cultural reasoning for exploration?
The pressures that led to exploration • Throughout the Renaissance, Reformation and Wars of Religion, exploration was also occurring. • This period ultimately resulted in the spread of European dominance from The New World in the west and Asia in the east. • In the 15th century Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks resulting in the establishment of Ottoman Empire. • This empire became a presence which intimidated the Europeans in trading with the east. • As the Ottomans established themselves, western European states such as Spain, France, and England became more politically centralized resulting in a growing sense of national pride and ambition and sense of adventure
More Reasons for Exploration • As they lost followers to Protestantism, the Catholic church and nations still associated with it, began to increase exploration efforts seeing it as a way to gain new converts. • "Glory, God and Gold" became the primary factors motivating exploration. • The technological innovations such as: • new sailing and navigational developments (caravel ships, the astrolabe, and the magnetic compass) • which were a byproduct of the intellectual curiosity of the Renaissance. • These provided the new explorers the tools and means to face the significant challenge of reaching the eastern trading markets by water as opposed to land.
New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe(1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant
Prince Henry, the Navigator • School for Navigation, 1419
Sails Pitch … I mean Sales Pitch time You are sales men and you are at a conference for explores and adventures. Your job is to write and present a sales pitch that is no longer than two minutes long. You must sell your invention of the time to explorers. You classmates will be you your judges on you pitch. You will work in partners and have approximately 15 minutes to research and write your pitch. You have two minutes to sell your technology of the time • Remember: How will this invention help an explorer reach their ultimate goal of God, Gold, or glory. Why should they use this invention to aid in their exploration? Remember you are trying to persuade someone to buy your item. You will be assigned a partner and a topic: • Caravel • Astrolabe • Stern post rudder • Magnetic Compass • Gunpowder • Lateen Sail
Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”
Portuguese Maritime Empire • Exploring the west coast of Africa. • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487. • Vasco da Gama, 1498. • Calicut. • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
Portugal A. Portugal took the lead in European exploration. In 1420, Prince Henry the Navigator sponsored Portuguese fleets that sailed along the western coast of Africa. They found gold. Europeans called the southern coast of West Africa the Gold Coast. B. In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip of Africa looking for a route to India. Vasco da Gama made the trip to the port of Calcutta in India in 1498. He took on a cargo of spices and returned to make a profit of several thousand percent. The route became well traveled. C. Portuguese fleets took control of the spice trade from the Muslims by force. In 1510, Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque set up a Portuguese port at Goa, on the western coast of India. He then sailed on to Melaka on the Malay Peninsula. This was a thriving port for the spice trade. D. From Melaka, the Portuguese made expeditions to China and the Moluccas, known as the Spice Islands. In the Spice Islands they signed a treaty with a local ruler for the purchase and export of cloves to Europe. This treaty gave Portugal control of the spice trade. Its trading empire was complete. Portugal had neither the power, people, or desire to colonize Asian regions, however. Question Why was the spice trade so lucrative?
The Spanish Empire A. The Spanish conquerors of the Americas—known as conquistadors—had incredible success due to guns and determination. By 1550, Spain controlled northern Mexico. Francisco Pizarro took control of the Inca Empire in the Peruvian Andes. Within 30 years, the western part of Latin America, as Europeans called it, was under Spanish control. B. The Spanish created a system of colonial administration. Queen Isabella declared that the natives (called Indians after the Spanish word Indios, or “inhabitants of the Indies”) were her subjects. She gave the Spanish the right, called encomienda, to use the natives as laborers. C. The Spanish were supposed to protect Native Americans, but few of them worried about this matter. Forced labor, starvation, and disease took a huge toll on the Native Americans. D. European diseases ravaged the native populations, who lacked immunity to such diseases as smallpox. Haiti had a population of 100,000 when Columbus arrived. By 1570, only 300 Native Americans had survived. Mexico’s population dropped from 25 million to 3 million. E. Catholic missionaries converted and baptized hundreds of thousands of native peoples. SIDE NOTE : Much of contemporary culture insists that Native American replace the word Indian. What is the argument for the change? Do you think paying attention to the names of peoples and groups is important for society?
Christopher Columbus [1451-1506] Opened the New world to exploration Four voyages to the Americas –miscaluclations 7,000 miles
Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16cnt 1480 to 1521 – Skilled Portuguese seaman who sailed for Spain …died in the Philippines Islands
The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs vs. Hernando Cortez 1460 -1574Conquistador overwhelmed the Aztec Montezuma II
The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs. Francisco Pizarro (1475- 1541) 300 men took the Incas Aided by disease Atahualpa
A few other Names • John Cabot – (1450 – 1499) Italian that helped claim NA for England • Jacques Cartier ( 1491 – 1557) Laid claim to NA fro French • St. Francis Xavier (1506- 15520 Jesuit Missionary that used his religious zeal to establish Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan • Balboa – (1475 – 1519) Stowaway hijacked a ship and led the expedition to the pacific
Encomienda System • Aztec & Inca civilizations destroyed • Spanish control • Subjects of Queen • Encomienda - the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers • Protection - required but not followed
The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves
Treaty or not here we come… • Both Spain and Portugal feared the other would claim some of its newly “discovered "territories”. They resolved the problem by agreeing on a line of demarcation dividing their new domains. In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas • The Line ran north-to-south through the Atlantic Ocean and the easternmost part of South America. • Portugal claimed the unexplored territories east of the line, Spain to the west.
10/3/13 Bell Ringer: What is the Columbian Exchange?
Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores OfficialEuropeanColony! Missionaries PermanentSettlers
The Slave Trade • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. • Sugar cane & sugar plantations. • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries. • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
Slave Ship “Middle Passage”
African CaptivesThrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!
Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World • Encomiendaor forced labor. • Council of the Indies.- this was a council that carried out the rules and regulations of the Spanish crown- tended to be loyal to the crown not the Spanish Americans. • Viceroyalties • New Spain and Peru. • Papal agreement.
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission
Father Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws 1542
New Colonial Rivals • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. • Spain in Asia consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. • Surat in NW India in 1608. • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
Impact of European Expansion Native populations ravaged by disease. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”] New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. Deepened colonial rivalries.