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Renaissance Music

Renaissance Music

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Renaissance Music

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  1. Renaissance Music (1450-1600)

  2. Early and High Renaissance(1450-1530) • Introduction • Definition: rebirth or revival, a restoration of vitality after a time of decline. • Process of Rebirth: turned from austere medieval thought with its emphasis on religious authoritarianism to an emphasis on the pleasure of the senses (modeled in classical Greece and Rome). • Humanism: an attitude placing human dignity and humane values foremost.

  3. Geographical Center: Italy (City States) Florence: Lorenzo Medici Ferrara: Ercole Este Milan: Ludovico Sforza

  4. Cultural and Historical Events • Age of Discovery • Christopher Columbus • Ferdinand Magellan Columbus’ Voyages Columbus Magellan Magellan’s Voyages

  5. Sir Francis Drake • Sir Walter Raleigh Drake’s West Indian Voyage Drake Drake Raleigh

  6. Heliocentric Universe • Protestant Reformation Galilei Copernicus Copernicus’ Universe Luther’s 95 Theses Martin Luther Huldrych Zwingli John Calvin Henry VIII

  7. Catholic Counter-Reformation • a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation • Palestrina’s compositions became the musical model • Monarchs Ferdinand And Isabella Phillip II Henry VIII Elizabeth I Charles V

  8. Inventions • Printing press: Chinese, Johannes Gutenberg • Clear glass and mirror • Table fork Gutenberg Printing Press Gutenberg Bible

  9. The Visual Arts • Architecture • Return to Greek and Roman models • Movement away from Gothic pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting Bramante Brunelleschi Brunelleschi’s Florence Cathedral Bramante – St. Peter

  10. St. Denis - Paris St. Mark’s - Venice

  11. Sculpture • Important in the early and high Renaissance • Movement toward portraying the body as though it were made of real muscle and bone Donatello Michelangelo Donatello - David Michelangelo - David

  12. Painting • While Medieval artists represented their ideas as symbols, Renaissance painters aimed for realism. • Medieval painters gave us stereotypes; Renaissance, individual people. • Medieval artists organized space in succeeding planes; Renaissance artists gave depth and perspective. • Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper Mona Lisa Da Vinci

  13. Raphael • Michelangelo Raphael - Parnassus Raphael - Parnassus Raphael Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Michelangelo – Creation of Adam

  14. Literature • England: Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe • France: Clement Marot, Pierre de Ronsard • Italy: commedia dell’arte Spencer Shakespeare Marlowe

  15. Music in the Renaissance • Style • Unlike visual arts, no extant Greek and Roman music models • What they did know from the past was in two areas: • stories of music’s compelling effects (Doctrine of Ethos) • Greek descriptions of their scales and modes • Renaissance culture permeated with music • Musical Genres • Vocal: Mass, motet, madrigal, chansons, chorale, anthem, hymn • Instrumental: dances, ricercar, chaconne

  16. Musical Elements • Melody: small ranges, “updated” chant • Harmony: modal (early) to tonal (late), emergence of the triad • Rhythm: steady (metered), dance rhythms (instrumental) • Texture: Age of vocal polyphony; alternated homophony and polyphony (late Renaissance) • Timbre: vocal and instrumental • Form: binary (dances) • Dynamics: blocked

  17. Composers • Early Renaissance: Guillaume Dufay (c.1400-1474) • Sound Hallmark: Burgundian consonant sound (3rds, 6ths), fauxbourdon • Kyrie • Gloria • Credo • High Renaissance : Josquin des Prez (c. 1440-1521) • Sound Hallmark: imitative polyphony; balance, purity, control and clarity; integrity of the text and unstressed dissonance • Ave Maria Dufay Des Prez

  18. Late Renaissance(1530-1600) • Style • Overview of Early and High Renaissance • Early: clear melodies, sharply defined rhythms, fauxbourdon - use of 3rds and 6ths • High: balance, purity, control and clarity, integrity of the text, unstressed dissonance, imitative polyphony • Late Renaissance • composer reveals a desire to create an emotional response in the listener • composer offers a more sensuous, sonorous experience(i.e. consonant harmonies ) • Textures increased from 3 or 4 to 5 or 6 voices • Antiphonal choirs or instrumental groups were common

  19. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525-1594) • universally acknowledged Renaissance master • Most of his life was in the service of the church • first Renaissance composer whose entire work was published as a complete edition • Created an exemplary style of church music (counter reformation model) • Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass Palestrina Pope Marcellus Mass

  20. Madrigal • new Italian polyphonic, secular, a capella vocal genre • late Renaissance’s entertainment music • rapidly spread north to England, France and the Netherlands • Madrigal texts offered unique opportunities for composers to aptly fit the music to the text – text painting, called madrigalism • Thomas Morley (c. 1557-1602) • Now is the Month of Maying • Thomas Weelkes (c. 1575-1623) • As Vesta was from Latmos Hill Descending

  21. Instrumental Music • subordinate to vocal music ; yet growing greatly • first body of solely instrumental music originates within the Renaissance • instruments mostly doubled the vocal parts • In solely instrumental music, the instruments usually played together as families • Instrumental Families • String : viol family, lute • Woodwind : transverse flute, recorder • Double Reed : shawm (ancestor of the oboe, bassoon, English horn); crumhorn (reed in the mouthpiece) • Brass : cornets (trumpets), sackbutt (trombone) • Percussion : tambour (hand drum), tamborine, finger cymbals • Keyboard : organ, harpsichord

  22. String • viol family, lute, harp Lute Viol Harp

  23. Woodwind • transverse flute, recorder, shawm, crumhorn Flute Family Recorder Family Shawm Crumhorn

  24. Brass • cornets (trumpets), sackbut (trombone), serpent (baritone) Cornetts Sackbuts Serpent

  25. Percussion • tambour (hand drum), tamborine, finger cymbals Tabor and Pipe Tambours

  26. Keyboard • organ, harpsichord, virginal Table Organs Virginal Harpsichords Organ, Germany, 1425 Organ, Switzerland, 1435

  27. Giovanni Gabrieli (1555-1612) • Served in San Marco Cathedral, Venice • Polychoral style • Ricercar in the 12th mode Gabrieli