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Renaissance Music. (1450-1600). Early and High Renaissance (1450-1530). Introduction Definition: rebirth or revival, a restoration of vitality after a time of decline.

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early and high renaissance 1450 1530
Early and High Renaissance(1450-1530)
  • Introduction
    • Definition: rebirth or revival, a restoration of vitality after a time of decline.
    • Process of Rebirth: turned from austere medieval thought with its emphasis on religious authoritarianism to an emphasis on the pleasure of the senses (modeled in classical Greece and Rome).
    • Humanism: an attitude placing human dignity and humane values foremost.
slide3
Geographical Center: Italy (City States)

Florence: Lorenzo Medici

Ferrara: Ercole Este

Milan: Ludovico Sforza

slide4
Cultural and Historical Events
    • Age of Discovery
      • Christopher Columbus
      • Ferdinand Magellan

Columbus’

Voyages

Columbus

Magellan

Magellan’s Voyages

slide5
Sir Francis Drake
  • Sir Walter Raleigh

Drake’s West

Indian Voyage

Drake

Drake

Raleigh

slide6
Heliocentric Universe
  • Protestant Reformation

Galilei

Copernicus

Copernicus’ Universe

Luther’s

95 Theses

Martin Luther

Huldrych Zwingli

John Calvin

Henry VIII

slide7
Catholic Counter-Reformation
    • a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation
    • Palestrina’s compositions became the musical model
  • Monarchs

Ferdinand

And Isabella

Phillip II

Henry VIII

Elizabeth I

Charles V

slide8
Inventions
    • Printing press: Chinese, Johannes Gutenberg
    • Clear glass and mirror
    • Table fork

Gutenberg

Printing Press

Gutenberg Bible

slide9
The Visual Arts
    • Architecture
      • Return to Greek and Roman models
      • Movement away from Gothic pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting

Bramante

Brunelleschi

Brunelleschi’s Florence Cathedral

Bramante – St. Peter

slide10
St. Denis - Paris

St. Mark’s - Venice

slide11
Sculpture
    • Important in the early and high Renaissance
    • Movement toward portraying the body as though it were made of real muscle and bone

Donatello

Michelangelo

Donatello - David

Michelangelo - David

slide12
Painting
    • While Medieval artists represented their ideas as symbols, Renaissance painters aimed for realism.
    • Medieval painters gave us stereotypes; Renaissance, individual people.
    • Medieval artists organized space in succeeding planes; Renaissance artists gave depth and perspective.
    • Leonardo da Vinci

The Last Supper

Mona Lisa

Da Vinci

slide13
Raphael
  • Michelangelo

Raphael - Parnassus

Raphael - Parnassus

Raphael

Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo

Michelangelo – Creation of Adam

slide14
Literature
    • England: Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe
    • France: Clement Marot, Pierre de Ronsard
    • Italy: commedia dell’arte

Spencer

Shakespeare

Marlowe

slide15
Music in the Renaissance
    • Style
      • Unlike visual arts, no extant Greek and Roman music models
      • What they did know from the past was in two areas:
        • stories of music’s compelling effects (Doctrine of Ethos)
        • Greek descriptions of their scales and modes
    • Renaissance culture permeated with music
    • Musical Genres
      • Vocal: Mass, motet, madrigal, chansons, chorale, anthem, hymn
      • Instrumental: dances, ricercar, chaconne
slide16
Musical Elements
    • Melody: small ranges, “updated” chant
    • Harmony: modal (early) to tonal (late), emergence of the triad
    • Rhythm: steady (metered), dance rhythms (instrumental)
    • Texture: Age of vocal polyphony; alternated homophony and polyphony (late Renaissance)
    • Timbre: vocal and instrumental
    • Form: binary (dances)
    • Dynamics: blocked
slide17
Composers
    • Early Renaissance: Guillaume Dufay (c.1400-1474)
      • Sound Hallmark: Burgundian consonant sound (3rds, 6ths), fauxbourdon
      • Kyrie
      • Gloria
      • Credo
    • High Renaissance : Josquin des Prez (c. 1440-1521)
      • Sound Hallmark: imitative polyphony; balance, purity, control and clarity; integrity of the text and unstressed dissonance
      • Ave Maria

Dufay

Des Prez

late renaissance 1530 1600
Late Renaissance(1530-1600)
  • Style
    • Overview of Early and High Renaissance
      • Early: clear melodies, sharply defined rhythms, fauxbourdon - use of 3rds and 6ths
      • High: balance, purity, control and clarity, integrity of the text, unstressed dissonance, imitative polyphony
    • Late Renaissance
      • composer reveals a desire to create an emotional response in the listener
      • composer offers a more sensuous, sonorous experience(i.e. consonant harmonies )
      • Textures increased from 3 or 4 to 5 or 6 voices
      • Antiphonal choirs or instrumental groups were common
slide19
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525-1594)
    • universally acknowledged Renaissance master
    • Most of his life was in the service of the church
    • first Renaissance composer whose entire work was published as a complete edition
    • Created an exemplary style of church music (counter reformation model)
    • Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass

Palestrina

Pope Marcellus Mass

slide20
Madrigal
    • new Italian polyphonic, secular, a capella vocal genre
    • late Renaissance’s entertainment music
    • rapidly spread north to England, France and the Netherlands
    • Madrigal texts offered unique opportunities for composers to aptly fit the music to the text – text painting, called madrigalism
    • Thomas Morley (c. 1557-1602)
      • Now is the Month of Maying
    • Thomas Weelkes (c. 1575-1623)
      • As Vesta was from Latmos Hill Descending
slide21
Instrumental Music
    • subordinate to vocal music ; yet growing greatly
    • first body of solely instrumental music originates within the Renaissance
    • instruments mostly doubled the vocal parts
    • In solely instrumental music, the instruments usually played together as families
    • Instrumental Families
      • String : viol family, lute
      • Woodwind : transverse flute, recorder
      • Double Reed : shawm (ancestor of the oboe, bassoon, English horn); crumhorn (reed in the mouthpiece)
      • Brass : cornets (trumpets), sackbutt (trombone)
      • Percussion : tambour (hand drum), tamborine, finger cymbals
      • Keyboard : organ, harpsichord
string
String
  • viol family, lute, harp

Lute

Viol

Harp

woodwind
Woodwind
  • transverse flute, recorder, shawm, crumhorn

Flute Family

Recorder Family

Shawm

Crumhorn

brass
Brass
  • cornets (trumpets), sackbut (trombone), serpent (baritone)

Cornetts

Sackbuts

Serpent

percussion
Percussion
  • tambour (hand drum), tamborine, finger cymbals

Tabor and Pipe

Tambours

keyboard
Keyboard
  • organ, harpsichord, virginal

Table Organs

Virginal

Harpsichords

Organ, Germany, 1425

Organ, Switzerland, 1435

slide27
Giovanni Gabrieli (1555-1612)
    • Served in San Marco Cathedral, Venice
    • Polychoral style
    • Ricercar in the 12th mode

Gabrieli

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