World War I. Life on the Home Front. Female Work Force. War opens up new jobs for women After wars end, however, women were laid off Most of these women were happy to have had jobs and contribute to the war effort in some way. Mobilizing for War. WWI will cost US nearly $35.5 billion.
Female Work Force War opens up new jobs for women After wars end, however, women were laid off Most of these women were happy to have had jobs and contribute to the war effort in some way.
Mobilizing for War WWI will cost US nearly $35.5 billion. Two-thirds would be paid by war bonds (low-interest loans meant by civilians to government). Example: John buys a 10 year war bond with a face value of $100 (par value). The interest paid is 3% annually ($3). After 10 years, the full amount of $100 is paid back plus $30 in interest that John has earned over time.
Mobilizing for War Continued.. “Liberty Loan Drives” were organized to sell bonds Propaganda posters urged citizens to purchase bonds Schoolchildren collected tin cans, paper, toothpaste tubes, and apricot pits. Apricot pits could be burned and made into charcoal for gas mask filters.
Government Involvement “Wheatless” Mondays and Wednesdays were observed to help ration supplies Gas was also saved by stopping Sunday drives. Government also limited use of steel and other metals Manufactures also stopped making tin toys for children and removed metal from caskets
Government Involvement Continued.. War Industries Board: set up by President Wilson to produce needed supplies. WIB managed buying and distributing of war materials Also set production goals and ordered construction of new factories National War Labor Board: settled conflicts between workers and factory owners
Committee on Public Information Committee’s writers, artists, photographers, and film makers produced propaganda. The war was “sold” through posters, pamphlets, and movies.
Intolerance and Suspicion Anti-German messages in propaganda fueled prejudice June 15, 1917: Congress passes Espionage Act and Sedition Act followed in May 1918. Both laws set heavy fines and long prison terms for antiwar activities such as encouraging draft resisters Laws made it illegal to criticize war
Intolerance and Suspicion Continued.. US courts would try more than 1,500 pacifists, socialist, and other war critics (hundreds went to jail). Socialist part leader Eugene Debs gives a speech arguing that the war was fought by poor workingmen for the profit of wealthy business owners. Debs was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Schenck v. United States Government ignores complaints that rights of Americans are being trampled. Supreme court case Schenck v. United States upholds Espionage Act. Schenck was convicted of passing out anti-draft pamphlets. He argues his right to free speech is violated. However, court rules that free speech could be limited during wartime. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote court’s opinion.
New Jobs and the Great Migration US faces labor shortage Factories in North now willing to hire African Americans 1910-1920: around 500,000 African Americans move north to such cities as New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis. This movement North by African Americans became known as the Great Migration. They hope to escape bigotry, poverty, and racial violence of South.
Mexican Migration Jobs also opened in Southwest due to growth of railroads and irrigated farming Many Mexicans flee chaos in Mexico and move across border after 1910. Many settle in Texas, Arizona, Colorado, and California Most become farm workers, while others went North to look for manufacturing jobs
Flu Epidemic of 1918 Flu sweeps globe, killing more than 20 million people on 6 continents Finally disappears in 1919 Had no known cure Schools and public places shut down to limit flu’s spread More than 25% of Army caught disease, with some AEF units losing one-third of their troops. Germans suffered even more casualties from the flu.