Conditional sentences. If - clauses. TYPES. There are three types of the if-clauses. Type Condition I condition possible to fulfill II condition in theory possible to fulfill
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If - clauses
There are three types of the if-clauses.
I condition possible to fulfill
II condition in theory possible to fulfill
III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)
Type if clause main clause
I Simple Present will-future (or Modal + infinitive)
II Simple Past would + infinitive
III Past Perfect would + have + past participle
Type if clause main clause
I If I study, I will pass the exam.
II If I studied, I would pass the exam.
III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.
Type main clause if-clause
I I will pass the exam if I study.
II I would pass the exam if I studied.
III I would have passed
the exam if I had studied.
If-clauses can be clause-initial (1), clause-medial (2) as well as clause-final (3).
(1) If you like, we can watch a movie.
(2) We, if you like, can watch a movie.
(3) We can watch a movie if you like.
Aside from the typical type I, II, III strucure, conditionals can be divided into two categories: real
If I have money, I spend it.
Present Real Conditional - type I
If I had money, I spent it.
Past Real Conditional - type I
If I have money, I will/am going to spend it.
Future Real Conditional - type I
If I had had money, I would have spent it.
Past unreal Conditional - type III
If I had money, I would spend it.I think
about spending the money TODAY.
Present unreal Conditional - type II
If I had money, I would spend it.I think about spending the money NEXT WEEK.
Future unreal Conditional - type II
Modal verbs: Main clauses with real conditional tenses can have modal verbs.
If I have money, I can spend it.
You can use could and might instead of would in unreal conditional clauses.
If I had money, I could spend it.(I would be able to spend it.)
If I had money, I might spend it.(I would possibly spend it.)
Unreal conditionals (type II + III) sometimes can be mixed, that is, the time of the if clause is different from the one of the main clause.
If I had taken an aspirin, I wouldn't have a headache now.
If I had known that you are going to come by tomorrow, I would be in then.
If she had enough money, she could have done this trip to Hawaii.
If I were you, I would be spending my vacation in Salvador.
If I weren't flying to Detroit tomorrow, I would have planned a trip to Vancouver.
If I were taking this exam next week, I would be high-strung.
When the situation or action depicted in the if-clause is a result of the main clause, the will future is used in the if-clause.
He'll pay me $10 if I'll help him do the dishes. (Doing the dishes is the result of paying ten dollars.)
In polite requests would is possible in if-clauses.
It would be nice if you would help me in the kitchen. (Are you ready to help me in the kitchen?)
If can be replaced by words or expressions with a similar meaning.
The most common are:
as long asassuming (that)on condition (that)on the assumption (that)provided (that)supposing (that)unlesswith the condition (that)
Had I known... (instead of If I had known...)
Were you my daughter,... (instead of: If you were my daughter,...)
Should you need my advice,... (instead of: If you should need my advice,...)
if and when are interchangeable when the statement of the conditional clause is a fact or a general issue (also known as zero conditonal)
If you heat ice, it melts.
When you heat ice, it melts.
if is used for something that, according to the speaker, might happen.
We can spend the afternoon on the beach if the weather is fine.
when is used for something that, according to the speaker, will happen.
I will clean up the kitchen right away when I'm back from work.
in case of can be used to shorten an if-clause as shown below:
If there is a fire, leave the room.
In case of fire, leave the room.
While if expresses a condition (1), in case is used to express a possibility (2).
(1)I need painkillers if I'm in severe pain.
(2)I need painkillers in case I'm in severe pain.
The expression just in case is used pretty much the same way.
I got you a pizza just in case you were hungry. (I don't know whether you are hungry.)
1) If Brian (to like) horses, he could ride well.2) If you listened carefully, you (to know) about it.3) If the weather had been better, we (to come) by bike.4) They will stay longer in Paris if they (to find) a cheap hotel.5) If you were older, you (to go) to the party.
.1) You would have slept much better 2) If he studied the new words, 3) My uncle would stay longer in York 4) If you wait a minute, 5) If Amy does the washing up,
1) type I: They (to fly) to Canberra if they (to have) more money.2) type III: If I (to study), I (to pass) the test.3) type II: They (to fly) to Canberra if they (to have) more money.4) type II: If I (to study), I (to pass) the test.5) type I: If the sun (to shine), we (to go) swimming.