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Conditional sentences. If - clauses. TYPES. There are three types of the if-clauses. Type Condition I condition possible to fulfill II condition in theory possible to fulfill

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types
TYPES

There are three types of the if-clauses.

Type Condition

I condition possible to fulfill

II condition in theory possible to fulfill

III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)

slide3
Form

Type if clause main clause

I Simple Present  will-future (or Modal + infinitive)

II Simple Past  would + infinitive

III Past Perfect would + have + past participle

examples if clause at the beginning
Examples (if-clause at the beginning)

Type if clause main clause

I If I study, I will pass the exam.

II If I studied, I would pass the exam.

III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

examples if clause at the end
Examples (if-clause at the end)

Type main clause if-clause

I I will pass the exam if I study.

II I would pass the exam if I studied.

III I would have passed

the exam if I had studied.

structure
Structure

If-clauses can be clause-initial (1), clause-medial (2) as well as clause-final (3).

(1) If you like, we can watch a movie.

(2) We, if you like, can watch a movie.

(3) We can watch a movie if you like.

types7
Types

Aside from the typical type I, II, III strucure, conditionals can be divided into two categories: real

and

unreal

conditionals.

real condition
Real Condition

If I have money, I spend it.

Present Real Conditional - type I

If I had money, I spent it.

Past Real Conditional - type I

If I have money, I will/am going to spend it.

Future Real Conditional - type I

unreal condition
Unreal Condition

If I had had money, I would have spent it. 

Past unreal Conditional - type III

If I had money, I would spend it.I think

about spending the money TODAY.

Present unreal Conditional - type II

If I had money, I would spend it.I think about spending the money NEXT WEEK.

Future unreal Conditional - type II

special features
Special Features

Modal verbs: Main clauses with real conditional tenses can have modal verbs.

If I have money, I can spend it.

You can use could and might instead of would in unreal conditional clauses.

If I had money, I could spend it.(I would be able to spend it.)

If I had money, I might spend it.(I would possibly spend it.)

mixed conditionals
Mixed Conditionals

Unreal conditionals (type II + III) sometimes can be mixed, that is, the time of the if clause is different from the one of the main clause.

past present
Past -- Present

If I had taken an aspirin, I wouldn't have a headache now.

past future
Past -- Future

If I had known that you are going to come by tomorrow, I would be in then.

past past
Past -- Past

If she had enough money, she could have done this trip to Hawaii.

past future15
Past -- Future

If I were you, I would be spending my vacation in Salvador.

future past
Future -- Past

If I weren't flying to Detroit tomorrow, I would have planned a trip to Vancouver.

future present
Future -- Present

If I were taking this exam next week, I would be high-strung.

will and would in if clauses
Will and Would in if-clauses

will

When the situation or action depicted in the if-clause is a result of the main clause, the will future is used in the if-clause.

He'll pay me $10 if I'll help him do the dishes. (Doing the dishes is the result of paying ten dollars.)

would

In polite requests would is possible in if-clauses.

It would be nice if you would help me in the kitchen. (Are you ready to help me in the kitchen?)

replacing if
Replacing if

If can be replaced by words or expressions with a similar meaning.

The most common are:

as long asassuming (that)on condition (that)on the assumption (that)provided (that)supposing (that)unlesswith the condition (that)

omitting if
Omitting if

Had I known... (instead of If I had known...)

Were you my daughter,... (instead of: If you were my daughter,...)

Should you need my advice,... (instead of: If you should need my advice,...)

if vs when
if vs. when

if and when are interchangeable when the statement of the conditional clause is a fact or a general issue (also known as zero conditonal)

If you heat ice, it melts.

When you heat ice, it melts.

if is used for something that, according to the speaker, might happen.

We can spend the afternoon on the beach if the weather is fine.

when is used for something that, according to the speaker, will happen.

I will clean up the kitchen right away when I'm back from work.

in case vs if
in case vs. if

in case of can be used to shorten an if-clause as shown below:

If there is a fire, leave the room.

In case of fire, leave the room.

While if expresses a condition (1), in case is used to express a possibility (2).

(1)I need painkillers if I'm in severe pain.

(2)I need painkillers in case I'm in severe pain.

The expression just in case is used pretty much the same way.

I got you a pizza just in case you were hungry. (I don't know whether you are hungry.)

put in the correct verb forms
Put in the correct verb forms.

1) If Brian (to like) horses, he could ride well.2) If you listened carefully, you (to know) about it.3) If the weather had been better, we (to come) by bike.4) They will stay longer in Paris if they (to find) a cheap hotel.5) If you were older, you (to go) to the party.

finish the sentences
Finish the sentences.

.1) You would have slept much better 2) If he studied the new words, 3) My uncle would stay longer in York 4) If you wait a minute, 5) If Amy does the washing up,

complete the sentences
Complete the sentences.

1) type I: They (to fly) to Canberra if they (to have) more money.2) type III: If I (to study), I (to pass) the test.3) type II: They (to fly) to Canberra if they (to have) more money.4) type II: If I (to study), I (to pass) the test.5) type I: If the sun (to shine), we (to go) swimming.