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Conditional Sentences. Structure :. A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :. If-clause . +. Main Clause. Example :. If it rains tomorrow, we will not come. If-clause. Main Clause. Conditional Sentences. Types :. There are 4 types of conditional sentences.

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slide1

Conditional Sentences

Structure :

A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :

If-clause

+

Main Clause

Example :

If it rains tomorrow, we will not come.

If-clause

Main Clause

slide2

Conditional Sentences

Types :

  • There are 4 types of conditional sentences.

They are classified according to their specific

implications.

  • Each type of conditional sentences uses

different tenses to show the difference in

their implications.

slide3

Conditional Sentences

Type 0 :

Talk about universal truth.

Use :

Tense :

Present tense in both clauses

Example :

Present Tense

Present Tense

If you heat water to 100°C, it boils.

If you pour oil into water, it floats.

slide4

Conditional Sentences

Type 1

Use :

Talk about a present or future probable case.

If-clause ~ Present Tense

Main Clause ~ Future Tense

Tense :

Example :

Present Tense

Future Tense

If I feel sick, I will not go to school.

If it rains tomorrow, the match will be cancelled.

slide5

Exercise One

do not come

  • If you ___________________ (not come),
  • You ________________ (miss ) the show.

will miss

will buy

  • John __________________ (buy)a car if he
  • _____________ (get)a job.

gets

gets

  • Mary ________________(get) a toothache if
  • she_________________ (eat) too many sweets.

eats

slide6

Conditional Sentences

Type 2 (Present Subjunctive)

Use :

Talk about a present or future improbable case. (A case that is unlikely to happen)

Tense :

If-clause ~ Past Tense

Main Clause ~ would + an infinitive

Example :

Past Tense

Would + infinitive

If he were a bird, he would fly across the harbour.

If I had $200,000 now, I would buy a car.

slide7

Conditional Sentences

Type 3 (Past Subjunctive)

Talk about a past, impossible case

Use :

Tense :

If-clause ~ Past Perfect Tense

Main Clause ~ Would + Present Perfect Form

Example :

Past Perfect Tense

Would + Present Perfect Form

If I had had enough money, I would have bought the camera yesterday.

If I had come home earlier, I would not havemissed the programme.

slide8

Exercise Two

were

  • If I ________________ (be) four years old, I
  • ________________ (learn) to play the piano.

would learn

had not failed

  • If I ________________ (not fail) in the
  • examination, my mother_______________ (buy)
  • me a new computer.

would have bought

would have finished

3. We ________________________ (finish) if we

________________ (have) better preparation.

had had

slide9

Conditional Sentences

SHOULD may replace IF in type 1

Variations:

Type 1 :

If you see John, ask him to come and see me.

Should you see John, ask him to come and see me.

COULD or MIGHT may replace WOULD

Type 2 :

If I were an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky.

Were I an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky.

WERE may replace IF in an inversion

slide10

Conditional Sentences

Type 3 :

If I had come home earlier, I would not have missed the programme.

Had I come home earlier, I would not have missed the programme.

HAD may replace IF in an inversion

slide11

Conditional Sentences

But for+ a noun may replace `If it were not for’

Type 2 & Type 3 :

If it were not for the rain, we would go to Shatin. (Type 2)

But for the rain, we would go to Shatin.

If it had not been for the traffic jam, we would have arrived on time. (Type 3)

But for the traffic jam, we would have arrived on time.

But for + a noun may replace `If it had not been for’

slide12

The Subjunctive Mood

Other sentences than the conditional may bear the subjunctive mood.

Type 2

Type 3

a. Wish (v)

I wish I were a king.

(But I am not!)

I wish she had left last night.

(But she didn’t!)

* Non-subjunctive use of wish

  • I wish to travel to Europe next year
  • We wish you a happy birthday.
slide13

The Subjunctive Mood

b. If only

Type 2

Type 2

If only I were you!

If only he were born in the USA!

(He was not born in USA)

If only she had left last night!

(She did not leave last night)

Type 3

slide14

The Subjunctive Mood

Type 2

b. Would rather

I would rather you came earlier.

(But you come late.)

Type 3

(But he didn’t.)

I would rather he had told me the secret.

* Non-subjunctive use of would rather

A : Do you want to go fishing today?

B : I would rather stay at home and take some rest.

(B prefers staying at home to going fishing)

slide15

The Subjunctive Mood

d. Lest (Conjunction)

He put the money in the safe lest someone should / might steal it.

Past Tense

e. It is (high) time

  • It is (high) time you studied hard.

(You have not studied hard. Now the examination is near, so you have to study very hard.)

(non-subjunctive)

  • It is timefor you to leave