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World War I. Causes, Course, and Consequences. The Wars Catalyst. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo 6/28/1914. The Wars Causes: Nationalism. Serbian Nationalism Gvrillo Princip and the Black Hand. Nationalism.

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world war i

World War I

Causes, Course, and Consequences

the wars catalyst
The Wars Catalyst
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo 6/28/1914.
the wars causes nationalism
The Wars Causes: Nationalism
  • Serbian Nationalism
  • Gvrillo Princip and the Black Hand
nationalism
Nationalism
  • Self Determination: France set off a century of revolution and reform that saw the ideas of the enlightenment impact Europe.
  • Revolutions occurred in the Netherlands, Prussia, Austria.
  • Unification of nationalist countries in Germany and Italy.
  • Franco-Prussian War
the ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire:
  • “Sick man of Europe”
  • Ottoman had seen an erosion of their state
  • Eastern Question
  • Multi-national empire like that of the Austro-Hungarians.
  • Loss of Balkans and Greeks.
greece as a model
Greece as a model
  • Ottoman lands begin to fall as the Greek state had.
  • Slavic nationalism on the rise “Pan-Slavism”.
  • Austria-Hungary
cause iii colonial disputes
Cause III: Colonial Disputes
  • As chp. 34 illustrated the late 19th early 20th century saw countries tripping over themselves to gain land.
  • Conflicts were bound to emerge.
  • Germany and Britain, Germany and France the most heated
algericas conference
Algericas Conference
  • “Temporarily” solved tensions between Germany and France.
  • The unsolved tension would be a key cause of WWI.
balkan wars
Balkan Wars
  • Balkan countries sought to pick apart Ottoman Empire.
  • Setting Euoprean countries against each other.
  • Building up the agitation leading to WWI.
alliances
Alliances
  • The system of interlocking relationships under which one country would go to war in defense of another.
triple alliance and triple entente
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
  • Central Powers (TA)
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy
  • Motivations of each?
  • Triple Entente
  • Great Britain
  • Russia
  • France
global war
Global War
  • Schlieffen Plan
this war is just fine and great
“This war is just fine and great”
  • Howard Zinn on enlistments…
mutual butchery
Mutual Butchery
  • “The War will be over by Christmas”
  • Slogans and optimism abound.
  • Battle on the Western Front
total war the homefront
Total War: The Homefront
  • War of attrition
  • Planned economies required
  • Mobilization of resources and psyche
  • Propaganda a common tool
conflict abroad japan and the 21 demands
Conflict Abroad: Japan and the 21 Demands
  • Japan demanded from Germany territory in China to preserve East Asian Peace.
  • Japan enters on the side of the Allies and eroded German defenses in the area.
  • Japan sent China 21 demands which reduced them to a “protectorate of Japan”
  • Harbinger for Japan
  • Caused trouble amongst Allies.
battle of gallipoli
Battle of Gallipoli
  • British assault on Ottomans to weaken the Central Powers.
  • Winston Churchill
  • Stunning defeat for the British
  • Staggering death tolls
  • Weakening of imperialism
  • Rise of nationalist Turkey-Mustapha Kemal
end of the ottomans
End of the Ottomans
  • Treaty of Sevres
  • Treaty unacceptable to Turkish nationalists (Kemal) and they launched the Turkish war of Independence.
modern turkey
Modern Turkey
  • Ataturk and modernization
  • Secular government
  • Expanded rights for women
  • European legal system
  • Long term progress
  • Dictator until 1938
lawrence of arabia
Lawrence of Arabia
  • British scholar and archaeologist who led arab troops in revolt against the Turkish—goal to weaken Central Powers.
revolution in russia
Revolution in Russia
  • Great War had humiliated Russia.
  • Left it backward, starving, and in chaos.
  • Series of Revolutions break out.
  • February Revolution
  • October Revolution
february revolution
February Revolution
  • Fueled by Angry Workers
  • Soviets
  • Incomplete and poorly planned.
  • Petrograd Soviet and provisional government at odds.
  • Didn’t meet the needs of communist ideology.
  • George Lvov and A. Kerensky
october revolution
October Revolution
  • Lenin’s return
  • Devotion to Marxism
  • “organized Marxism”-role of the Soviet
  • Uncompromisingly opposed to War
  • “Peace, Land, and Bread”
24 october
24 October
  • October 24, Soviets storm Winter Palace.
  • Provisional Government ends in chaos.
  • Goal to change Russian institutions along Marxist lines.
treaty of brest litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • Ends war for Russians
  • Creates turmoil for Allies
  • Lost massive land and population
  • Humiliating, yet relieving—internal problems.
key points
Key Points
  • Wilson’s 14 Points
  • Russian exclusion
  • Japanese exclusion
  • Terms:
    • War Guilt Clause
    • War reparations
    • No German military
    • Loss of land and colonies
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 points…
  • 1/8/18
  • Specific aims?
  • First five
  • 2nd Eight
  • Last one
  • Public opinion?
versailles 1919
Versailles 1919
  • Wilson goes in person?
  • Public perception of Wilson…
  • European perception of Wilson…
  • Article 231
self determination
“Self Determination”
  • “Self Determination will raise hopes which can never be realized. It will, I fear, cost thousands of lives. In the end it is bound to be discredited to be called the dram of an idealist who failed to realize the danger of it until it was too late”. H. C. Lodge
problems caused by wwi
Problems caused by WWI
  • German crisis of the 20’s
  • Mid east tensions
  • WWII
  • Crisis in the Balkans
  • Japanese Empire of the 30’s.
mandate system
Mandate system:
  • “Neo Imperialism”
  • Problems profound
  • Ottoman state dismembered
racial equality
Racial Equality
  • Japanese amendment: calls for equality, the contingent of Versailles rejects it and gives them…a piece of China.
  • Also given is ammunition for the development of anti-Americanism in the Pacific rim and the creation of a Japanese Empire.
a league of nations
A League of Nations
  • International peacekeeping body designed to bring about peace through collectivism.