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Public Speaking Chapter Two. Previewing the Audience-Centered Speechmaking Process. Consider Your Audience. Your audience influences the topic you choose and every later step of the speechmaking process.

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public speaking chapter two

Public SpeakingChapter Two

Previewing the Audience-Centered Speechmaking Process

consider your audience
Consider Your Audience
  • Your audience influences the topic you choose and every later step of the speechmaking process.
  • Your selection of topic, purpose, and even major ideas should be based on your listeners.
consider your audience1
Consider Your Audience
  • You need to gather and analyze information about your audience.
    • Being audience-centered means that you are keeping your audience in mind every step of the way in the process of creating your speech.
    • Audience analysis is not something done only at the beginning of a speech; it is an ongoing activity.
consider your audience2
Consider Your Audience
  • At any point during the preparation and delivery of your message, you may need to revise your thinking about your material if you learn new information about your audience.
  • Being audience-centered involves making decisions about the content and delivery of your speech beforeyou speak and also being aware of your audience’s responses duringyour speech so that you can make appropriate adjustments.
culturally diverse backgrounds
Culturally Diverse Backgrounds
  • People in the United States are highly diverse in terms of their culture, age, ethnicity, and religious traditions.
    • You will want to adjust not only your delivery style but also your topic, pattern of organization, and the examples you use, according to who your audience members are and what they are interested in.
culturally diverse backgrounds1
Culturally Diverse Backgrounds
  • Being sensitive to your audience and adapting your message will serve you well not only when addressing listeners with different cultural backgrounds from your own, but in all types of situations.
    • If you learn to analyze your audience and adapt to their expectations, you can use this skill in numerous situations (like job interviews, presentations, etc.)
selecting your topic
Selecting Your Topic
  • speech topic – the key focus of the content of a speech.
    • When selecting a topic:
      • pay attention to the assignment details
      • give yourself plenty of time to select and narrow down your topic
      • do not wait until the last minute!
    • *A research study recently found that the amount of time you spend preparing for your speech is one of the best predictors of a good grade on your speech!*
who is the audience
Who is the Audience?
  • A basic knowledge of your audience can influence your speech topic.
    • For example, if your audience is around your own age, you should choose a topic that is interesting to people in your own age group.
    • On the other hand, an older audience may prefer to hear about issues such as: raising families or social security.
what is the occasion
What is the Occasion?
  • Along with your audience, the occasion of your speech will influence the topic of your speech. (For example, commencement address, informative speech to colleagues, or a speech at a wedding reception are all types of speeches with different occasions.
  • The physical surroundings of your speech will also affect how formal your speech will be.
    • Will your speech be on a stage or at the front of a room filled with a large group of people or will you speak to a room where chairs are arranged in a circle?
determining your general purpose
Determining Your General Purpose
  • Your general purpose is the overarching goal of your speech.
    • There are three types of general purposes:
      • to inform – to teach, define, illustrate, clarify, or elaborate on a topic
      • to persuade – to change or reinforce listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
      • to entertain – includes after-dinner speeches and comic monologues
determining your specific purpose
Determining Your Specific Purpose
  • Your specific purpose is a concise statement indicating what you want your listeners to be able to do, remember, or feel when you finish your speech.
    • A specific purpose statement identifies the precise audience response you desire.
      • Examples:
        • At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to identify three workout facilities on campus.
        • At the end of my speech, the audience will go buy the book The Great Gatsby.
determining your specific purpose1
Determining Your Specific Purpose
  • If you cannot figure out what the specific purpose of a speech is, it is probably because the speaker does not know either.
  • Deciding on a specific purpose is not difficult once you have narrowed your topic.
    • For an informative speech, you may want your audience to restate an idea, define new words, or identify, describe, or illustrate something
determining your specific purpose2
Determining Your Specific Purpose
    • For a persuasive speech, you may try to inspire your listeners to take a class, buy something, or vote for someone.
  • Your specific purpose should guide your research and help you choose supporting materials that are related to your audience.
    • As you continue to work on your speech, you may decide to modify your purpose, but if you have an objective in mind at all times, you will stay on track.
develop your central idea
Develop Your Central Idea
  • Your central idea is a one-sentence summary of the speech content. This summary is the essence of your message.
    • Topic: The South Beach Diet
    • General Purpose: to inform
    • Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to identify the three key elements in the South Beach diet.
    • Central Idea: The South Beach diet is based on reducing the amount of carbohydrates you eat, drinking more water, and increasing the exercise you get.
generating main ideas
Generating Main Ideas
  • Effective speakers know how to play with words and thoughts to develop their main ideas – the key points of their speech.
    • This skill is called invention(the ability to develop or discover ideas that result in new insights or new approaches to old problems).
  • Once you have a topic, ask yourself these three questions to help find your mains ideas:
    • Does the central idea have logical divisions?
    • Can you think of several reasons why the central idea is true?
    • Can you support the central idea with a series of steps?
generating main ideas1
Generating Main Ideas
  • Your time limit, topic, and the information gathered from your research will determine how many major ideas will be in your speech.
  • Don’t spend too much time trying to divide a topic that does not need dividing.
does the central idea have logical divisions
Does the Central Idea have Logical Divisions?
  • Look for logical divisions in your speech. This is the simplest way to determine key points or main ideas.
    • For example, if your speech is teaching the audience of the three step process of painting furniture, it would be logical to break down the information into three parts.
reasons why your central idea is true
Reasons Why Your Central Idea is True
  • If your central idea is a statement that something is good or bad, you should focus on the reasons your central idea is true.
    • Use these reasons as the main ideas of the speech.
a series of steps
A Series of Steps
  • Speeches describing a personal experience or explaining how to build or make something can usually be organized in a step-by-step progression.
gathering supporting material
Gathering Supporting Material
  • Once you have your main ideas in mind, the next step is to gather supporting material (facts, examples, definitions, illustrations, charts, quotes, etc.)
  • It is critical that, during this step, you always keep your audience in mind. The supporting material that you use must be appealing to your audience if you want to keep their attention.
gathering interesting supporting material
Gathering Interesting Supporting Material
  • Supporting material should be personal and concrete
    • it should also appeal to the listeners
      • tell stories based on your own experiences (and provide vivid details so that your audience can visualize what you are talking about)
    • it is helpful to relate abstract statistics to something tangible so that your ideas are communicated more clearly
      • For example, instead of just saying that Frito Lays sells 2.6 billion pounds of chips, tell your audience that this is triple the weight of the Empire State Building (this makes your point more memorable)
developing good research skills
Developing Good Research Skills
  • Public speakers need good research skills
    • Use your library (and help from your librarian!)
    • use electronic resources
    • be on the lookout as you read, watch tv, and listen to the radio
      • these are potential goldmines for ideas, examples, illustrations, and quotes that could be used in speeches
    • you should also learn how to gather information through interviews and written requests for information
gather supporting visual material
Gather Supporting Visual Material
  • Any presentation can be enhanced by reinforcing key ideas using visual aids
    • More often than not, the best visual aids are the most simplest:
      • an object
      • a chart
      • a graph
      • a poster
      • a model
      • a map
      • even a person – to demonstrate a skill or process
organize your speech
Organize Your Speech
  • A speech that is clearly and logically structured helps your audience remember what you say
  • A logical structure also helps you feel more in control of your speech
    • greater control helps you feel more comfortable while delivering your message
  • disposition is the organization and arrangement of ideas and illustrations
organize your speech1
Organize Your Speech
  • Every speech should have three major divisions:
    • introduction – captures attentions and serves as overview of the speech (gives audience reasons to listen to you)
    • body – presents the main content of your speech
    • conclusion – summarizes your main ideas
organize your speech2
Organize Your Speech
  • Because the introduction previews your speech and your conclusion summarizes it, it is recommended that you write those parts AFTER you write the body of your speech
rehearse your speech
Rehearse Your Speech
  • A speech is a performance. You need to rehearse.
    • the best way to rehearse your speech is to stand and deliver it aloud – just as you would to your audience.
  • Rehearse just enough so that you can discuss your main ideas and supporting material without leaving out major parts of your speech
rehearsing your speech
Rehearsing Your Speech
  • As you rehearse, practice having eye contact with your audience and a loud enough voice so that the entire room can hear you.
  • Evidence proves that preparing early and practicing your speech will enhance the overall quality of your speech
  • It is extremely important to become familiar with the language in your speech. If there are names or words that you do not know, learn them and practice!
    • Nothing ruins the overall effect of your speech than if you stumble over words – it makes the audience seem like you don’t know what you are talking about
deliver your speech
Deliver Your Speech
  • Before you walk in front of your audience, look at your listeners and see if they are what you were expecting (what you prepared for)
    • Do you need to make any last minute changes in examples or stories?
deliver your speech1
Deliver Your Speech
  • Walk calmly and confidently to the front of the room
  • establish eye contact with your audience
  • smile (naturally)
  • deliver your speech as you rehearsed it
    • maintain eye contact
    • speak loudly enough to be heard
    • use some natural variation in the pitch of your voice