Public Speaking Chapter 1: What’s It All About?
Objectives • Upon completing this session, you will be able to: • Associate the ability to think, speak, and write well with your success in life • Identify the 9 features that make public speaking different than conversing • Define the roles of speaker and audience • State the historical origins of public speaking • Explain the transactional aspects of public speaking • Discuss the meaning of Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
Public Speaking: A Calling Card • Ability to effectively think, speak and write will add to your success in: • Relationships • In other courses • In work • Today corporate recruiters look for people who can “…speak clearly, confidently, and concisely.” • Of 11 fundamental skills recruiters look for, the “ability to communicate orally” tops the list. • IBM-Nortel-Advertising-Journalism-Public!
Public Speaking In General • Conversation with a point or purpose • Intentional speaking with spontaneity • Planned out ahead • Is addressed to many versus one or a few • The audience is considered and contributes • Is colorful and compelling • Visualizations • Metaphors • Be careful -- Denotative vs. connotative
Public speaking: Not Chit Chat • Public speaking vs. Conversation • Is more audience centered • Is organized and planned (3 parts) • Is grounded in responsible knowledge • Has a clear purpose (goal) • Uses more formal/precise language • Has more defined speaker and listener roles • Has a more formal environment and larger groups
Speaker Purpose Message Medium Setting Listener Response Interference Consequences Public Speaking: Nine Elements Public speaking is distinctive as a form of communication through the interrelationship of 9 elements:
Speaker Purpose Message Medium Setting Listener Response Interference Consequences Public Speaking: Nine Elements The roles of speaker and listener: Speaker Listener
Public Speaking: The Setting • Setting can be: • Physical • Venue • Environment • Conducive or not? • Psychological • Occasion • Expectations of audience • Participative or Suspicious • Cooperative or Uncooperative?
Public Speaking: The Response • What do you want them to think, feel, or do during and after? • How do you respond/adapt to them? • Consider the “what ifs” in preparing speech • Consider the thermostat: You need one. • Public Speaking is transactional
Public Speaking: Origins • Started in ancient Greece • Taught Math, Music, Gymnastics & Rhetoric. • Rhetoric: The art or study of using language effectively and persuasively. • Forensic:Establishment of facts through science or argument. Appropriate for courts of law • No professional lawyers or judges • Speaker had to communicate to and convince jury of over 200 citizens. • Aristotle systematized as three major parts: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Lets discuss these 3 words
Public Speaking: Free Speech and Ethics • Freedom of speech • What does it mean? • Why is it important? • Ethics • Apply responsible knowledge • Know your subject better than your audience does • Understand what experts say/believe about subject • Be aware of most recent events • Realize how points may affect listeners-know your audience
Public Speaking: Ethics Don'ts • Don’ts • Don’t quote out of context • What is said is given meaning, by who said it when, where they said it and under what conditions in response to what events. • Don’t plagiarize • Two degrees • Presenting others’ work, ideas, research as yours • Neglecting citation fundamentals • Types: Mix and match – cut and paste
Public Speaking: Ethics Values • Native American Perspective • Ethics basics are universal • Interviews with leading moral representatives from many cultures revealed the existence of a global code of ethical conduct: • Love, truthfulness, fairness, freedom, unity, tolerance, responsibility and respect for life *From Shared Values for a Troubled world, Rushworth M. Kidder - President of the Institute for Global Ethics
Summary • Having completed this session, you can: • Associate the ability to think, speak, and write well with your success in life • Identify the 9 features that make public speaking different than conversing • Define the roles of speaker and audience • State the historical origins of public speaking • Explain the transactional aspects of public speaking • Discuss the meaning of Logos, Ethos, and Pathos