public speaking chapter sixteen n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 139 Views
  • Uploaded on

Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen. Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking. Persuasion Defined. Efforts to persuade you occur at an average rate of once every 2 ½ minutes per day. Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen' - beth


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
public speaking chapter sixteen

Public SpeakingChapter Sixteen

Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking

persuasion defined
Persuasion Defined
  • Efforts to persuade you occur at an average rate of once every 2 ½ minutes per day.
  • Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.
    • Attitudes represent our likes and dislikes (a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something).
persuasion defined1
Persuasion Defined
  • A belief is what you understand to be true or false.
    • If you believe something, you are convinced that it exists or is true.
    • Beliefs are typically based on past experience,
    • Beliefs are usually based on evidence, but we hold some beliefs based on faith – we have not directly experienced something, but we believe it anyway.
persuasion defined2
Persuasion Defined
  • A value is an enduring concept of right or wrong, good or bad.
    • If you value something, you think of it as good or desirable and its opposite as negative or bad.
      • If you do not value something, you are indifferent to it.
    • Values form the basis of your life goals and the motivating force behind your behavior.
    • Most Americans value honesty, trustworthiness, freedom, loyalty, family, and money.
    • Values are deeply ingrained, usually based on long-held values and are difficult to modify.
persuasion defined3
Persuasion Defined
  • Values are the most difficult to modify.
  • Beliefs are usually changed by evidence.
  • Attitude are easier changed than both beliefs and values.
    • Think carefully about your speech purpose and know whether your objective is to change or reinforce an attitude, belief, or value.
    • Then, decide what you need to do in order to achieve your message.
a classical rhetoric approach to understanding persuasion
A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • When the goal is to persuade, the communicator selects symbols to change attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior. Aristotle identified three methods to persuade: ethos, logos,and pathos.
    • Ethos is a speaker’s credibility.
      • In order to be credible, a public speaker should be ethical, possess good character, have common sense, and be concerned for the well-being of the audience.
      • The more credible a speaker is determined to be, the greater the chances that he or she will be able to persuade the audience.
a classical rhetoric approach to understanding persuasion1
A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • Logos means “the word.” It is the rational, logical arguments that a speaker uses to persuade someone.
    • A skilled persuader not only reaches a logical conclusion, but also supports the message with evidence and reasoning.
  • Pathos is the appeal to emotion.
    • Sometimes, we hold attitudes, values, or beliefs that are not logical, but that just make us feel positive. At the same time, we do or but things to make us feel happy, positive, or energized.
a classical rhetoric approach to understanding persuasion2
A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
      • Use emotion or strong stories and concrete examples, as well as pictures and music.
  • All three of these means of persuasion (ethos, logos, and pathos) are ways of motivating a listener.
    • Motivation is the internal force that drives people to achieve their goals.
a classical rhetoric approach to understanding persuasion3
A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • Several factors motivate people:
    • the need to restore balance to their lives to avoid stress
    • the need to avoid pain
    • the desire to increase pleasure
elm a contemporary approach to understanding persuasion
ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • The ELM (Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion) is the theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments, or emotional appeals.
elm a contemporary approach to understanding persuasion1
ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • The ELM describes how audience members interpret persuasive messages. It is an audience-centered theory of how people make sense of persuasive communication.
    • There are two ways that you can be persuaded: by a direct, logical route where you think critically or by in indirect route where you are persuaded by a general impression of what you are hearing.
elm a contemporary approach to understanding persuasion2
ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • To elaborate means to think about the information, ideas, and issues related to the content of the speech that you are listening to.
    • You simply have an overall impression.
elm a contemporary approach to understanding persuasion3
ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
  • The Direct Persuasion Route
    • You carefully and thoughtfully consider the facts and then make a thoughtful decision as whether to believe or do what the persuader wants.
  • The Indirect Persuasion Route
    • When you do not elaborate on a message, you can be persuaded by such indirect factors as catchy music in an advertisement or the salesman
  • If you cannot identify why you are persuaded by something, you are most likely being persuaded by indirect factors.
how to motivate listeners
How to Motivate Listeners
  • Persuasion works because listeners are motivated to respond to a message.
  • An audience is more likely to be persuaded if you help members solve their problems or meet their needs.
    • They can also be motivated if you convince them good things will happen to them if follow your advice (or that bad things will happen to them if they do not).
how to motivate listeners1
How to Motivate Listeners
  • Use Dissonance
    • The dissonance theory is based on the principle that people strive to solve problems and manage stress and tension in a way that is consistent with their attitudes, beliefs, and values.
      • Most people seek to avoid problems or feelings of dissonance.
how to motivate listeners2
How to Motivate Listeners
  • Cognitive Dissonance is the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns.
  • Creating dissonance with a persuasive speech can be an effective way to change attitudes and behavior.
    • The first step is to identify a problem or a need.
how to motivate listeners3
How to Motivate Listeners
  • It is important that when using the dissonance theory to persuade, you have an ethical responsibility to not use false claims.
    • Claiming that a problem exists when it really does not or creating dissonance about a problem that is unlikely to happen is unethical.
how to motivate listeners4
How to Motivate Listeners
  • How listeners’ cope with dissonance:
    • Discredit the source
    • Reinterpret the message
      • The listeners hear what they want to hear
    • Seek new information
      • They may look for additional information to negate your opinion.
    • Stop Listening
    • Change their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
how to motivate listeners5
How to Motivate Listeners
  • Use Listener Needs
    • Need is one of the best motivators.
    • Abraham Maslow identified a hierarchy of needs that motivate everyone’s behavior. (While the “hierarchy” aspect of the needs does not always apply, the needs themselves can be used as a checklist of what could potentially motivate listeners.
how to motivate listeners6
How to Motivate Listeners
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological needs
      • The most basic: air, water, and food.
    • Safety Needs
      • We all need to feel safe, secure, and protected.
    • Social Needs
      • We all need to feel loved and valued.
    • Self-esteem Needs
      • We need to think well of ourselves.
    • Self-Actualization Needs
      • We need to realize our highest potential.
how to motivate listeners7
How to Motivate Listeners
  • Use positive motivation
    • Positive motivational appeals are statements suggesting that good things will happen if the speaker’s advice is followed.
      • You must know what your listeners value.
    • Emphasize benefits, not just features.
      • A benefit is a good result or something that creates a positive feeling for the listener.
      • A feature is simply a characteristic of whatever it is that you are talking about.
  • When using positive motivational appeals, be sure your listeners know how the benefits of your proposal can improve the quality of their lives or of their loved ones.
how to motivate listeners8
How to Motivate Listeners
  • The use of a threat is often most effective.
    • A strong threat to a loved one tends to be more successful than a threat to audience members themselves.
    • The more competent, trustworthy, or respected the speaker, the greater the likelihood that the appeal will be successful.
    • Fear appeals are more successful if you can convince your listeners that the threat is real and will probably happen unless they take the action you suggest.
how to motivate listeners9
How to Motivate Listeners
  • In general, increasing the intensity of the fear increases the chances that the fear appeal will be successful.
  • Fear appeals are most successful if you can convince your listeners that they have the power to make a change that will reduce the threat.
how to develop your persuasive speech
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
  • Consider the audience
    • Develop a message that anticipates as best as you can what you audience may be thinking or feeling
  • Consider audience diversity
    • be culturally sensitive to your audience
    • don’t design a message using strategies that would be effective only for you or those from your background
how to develop your persuasive speech1
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
  • Remember your ethical responsibilities
    • do not fabricate evidence or try to frighten your listeners based on information that you know is not true
  • Select and narrow your topic
    • controversial issues are great topics for persuasive speeches
    • pay attention to the media and other sources of information
    • stay current on important issues
how to develop your persuasive speech2
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
  • Determine your persuasive purpose
    • The social judgment theory says that when listeners are confronted with a persuasive message, their responses can be classified into one of three categories:
      • latitude of acceptance (agree with the speaker)
      • latitude of rejection (disagree with speaker)
      • latitude of noncommitment (unsure of how to respond)
how to develop your persuasive speech3
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
    • You probably won’t get most listeners to fully change their values or beliefs, but if you can get them to at least move toward being more noncommittal and less rejecting, it is a good start towards your goal
  • Develop your central idea and main ideas
    • a proposition is a statement with which you want your audience to agree
      • ex: All students should get to leave for lunch.
how to develop your persuasive speech4
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
  • Proposition of Fact
    • focuses on whether something is true or false or did or did not happen
      • ex: Al Gore received more votes than George Bush in 2000.
  • Proposition of Value
    • a statement that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
      • ex: English is better than Math.
how to develop your persuasive speech5
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
  • Proposition of Policy
    • advocates a specific action
      • ex: The government should give veterans more benefits.