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Chapter 7. Introduction to High-Level Language Programming. Graphical Programming. Textual output vs. graphics Text-oriented OS: MS-DOS, VMS Graphical User Interface: Mac OS, MS Windows, X-Window Related subjects: Visualization of 3-D surface (Figure 7.30) Computer graphics

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Introduction to High-Level Language Programming

graphical programming
Graphical Programming
  • Textual output vs. graphics
  • Text-oriented OS: MS-DOS, VMS
  • Graphical User Interface: Mac OS, MS Windows, X-Window
  • Related subjects:
    • Visualization of 3-D surface (Figure 7.30)
    • Computer graphics
    • Computer Aided Design (CAD), CAM
graphic primitives
Graphic Primitives
  • Modern computer terminals use bit mapped display.
  • The screen is made up of picture elements (pixels).
  • Black-and-white, gray scale display, color display
  • The memory that stores the actual screen image is called a frame buffer.
  • Refresh rate
graphics library
Graphics Library

(0,0)

  • Contains routines for:
    • Drawing simple geometric shapes (lines, circles)
    • Creating and selecting colors
    • Displaying windows
    • Pull-down menus
    • buttons

(maxX, maxY)

ex small graphics library
Ex: Small Graphics Library
  • clearscreen(I)
  • moveto(x,y)
  • getmaxx()
  • getmaxy()
  • setcolor(I)
  • lineto(x,y)
  • rectangle(x1,y1,x2,y2)
  • circle(x,y,r)
  • writedraw(value,x,y)
  • getmouse(x,y)
examples
Examples
  • Move to center of screenX=getmaxx();Y=getmaxy();moveto(X/2,Y/2);
  • Draw a line from (20,20) to (100,100)clearscreen(0);setcolor(1);moveto(20,20);lineto(100,100);
creating a titled window
Creating a titled window

Clearscreen(0);

Setcolor(1);

Rectangle(50,50,350,80);

Rectangle(50,80,350,300);

Moveto(50,60);

Lineto(150,60);

Moveto(50,70);

Lineto(150,70);

Moveto(250,60);

Lineto(350,60);

Moveto(250,70);

Lineto(350,70);

Writedraw(“Title”,180,70);

Title

the big picture
The Big Picture
  • Software engineering
  • Coding (implementation) is a small part of the software life cycle.
  • May occupy only 10-20% of the total time spent by programmers and designers.
  • What are the other important steps?
software development cycle
Software Development Cycle
  • Before implementation
    • Feasibility study
    • Problem specification
    • Program design
    • Algorithm selection or development, and analysis
  • Implementation
    • Coding
    • Debugging
  • After implementation
    • Testing,verification and benchmarking
    • Documentation
    • Maintenance
scaling up
Scaling Up
  • Programs that students write in a first programming course may be a few hundred lines.
  • Truly large software systems may contains millions of lines of code.
  • Refer to Figure 7.35.