World War I Chapter 13
VocabularyChapter 13 1.militarism 2.Triple Alliance 3.nationalism 4.Triple Entente 5. Kaiser Wilhelm II
Critical Thinking 1.How did imperialism and militarism work together to promote war? 2. How did nationalism contribute to the unrest in the Balkans?
Rising Tensions in Europe • The Rise of Nationalism- Nationalism is a deep devotion to one’s country. This devotion led to an increasing rivalry between Europe’s Great powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy and France. • Imperialism and Militarism- The European nations competed fiercely for colonies in Africa and Asia. That competition pushed European countries to the brink of war. It led to rivalry and mistrust among the European nations. The policy of militarism was adopted to prepare for possible wars. The policy led to many nations keeping large and strong standing armies that were able to quickly mobilize and move troops if war broke out between rival nations.
Tangled Alliances Several military alliances among the Great Powers developed as a response to rivalries and distrust. The system was designed to keep peace but instead it would push Europe into WWI. • Bismarck Forges Early Pacts- After unifying Germany, Bismarck formed alliances to prevent war with France. The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria- Hungary and Italy was formed in 1881. • Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace- In 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II forced Bismarck to resign. Wilhelm let his treaty with Russia lapse. Russia responded by forming an alliance with France. If Germany went to war with France and Russia then Germany would be forced to fight a two front war. Germany responded to the alliance by trying to build a navy as big as Britain’s. Britain responded by forming the Triple Entente with France and Russia.
Crisis in the Balkans • A Restless Region- The Balkan Peninsula was home to an assortment of ethnic groups. The area has a long history of national uprisings and ethnic clashes, known as the “powder keg” of Europe. • A Shot Rings Throughout Europe- The Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist group. The assassination led Austria to declare war on Serbia.
The Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Read the primary source. Analyze the Serbian motivations for the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Write a newspaper article about the assassination. Write the article from the view point of Serbian nationalist or an Austrian. Include a title, picture and explanation of the event. Use the vocabulary terms: Nationalism Militarism Alliance System
Essay WWI was caused by a series of events and motivations. Please identify the causes that contributed to the start of WWI.
VocabularyChapter 13 Section 2 • Central Powers 2. Allies 3. Western Front 4. Schlieffen Plan 5. Trench Warfare 6. Eastern Front
The Great War Begins In response to Austria’s declaration of war, Russia(Serbia’s ally) mobilized for war against Germany. Germany declared war against Russia and France. Great Britain declared war on Germany. Nations Take Sides Central Powers Allied Powers Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary France Russia Japan Italy
A Bloody Stalemate The Conflict Grinds Along- Germany developed the Schlieffen Plan as a strategy for fighting a two front war. The plan was to attack/defeat France in the west then rush to east to fight Russia. After the first major battle the battle of the Marne, Germany realized a quick victory in the west was not a possibility. This forced Germany to fight on two fronts. War in the Trenches- By 1915, both opposing armies dug miles of trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire. To gain territory men were sent out of the trenches into “no man’s land”(the space between opposing trenches) where they were met with machine gun fire. This led to heavy causalities for both sides and a stalemate on the western front.
The Battle on the Eastern Front The area that stretched between the German and Russia border was known as the Eastern Front. Early Fighting- In the beginning of the war, Russia had a series of victories against the Germans and Austria. Russia Struggles- By 1916, Russia’s army faced shortages on food, guns, ammunition, clothes/boots and blankets. Allied supply shipments were limited by German control of the Baltic Sea. The Russian army had one asset that helped them throughout the war, the number of men in the army. The heavy losses throughout the war were counteracted by the country’s enormous population.
Postcard from the Front Life in the trenches was dangerous and miserable for soldiers on both opposing sides. After reading about life in the trenches, imagine you are a soldier on the western or eastern front. Write a postcard home that describes the conditions in the trenches and your experiences at the front. Include military technology used.
VocabularyChapter 13 Section 3 1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare 2. Total War 3. Rationing 4. Propaganda 5. Armistice
War Affects the World The Gallipoli Campaign- The Allied effort to defeat Germany included gaining control of the Dardanelles. This effort was known as the Gallipoli campaign. The campaign ended in a stalemate, the Allies gave up and evacuated. America Joins the Fight- In 1915,German U-boats sunk the passenger ship the Lusitania killing 128 U.S. citizens.After the sinking, Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral ships. In 1917, Germany was desperate for an advantage over the Allies and intensified their use of unrestricted submarine warfare. Another German action pushed the Americans into the war. In February of 1917, the American government intercepted a telegram from the German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman that stated if Mexico allied itself with Germany than Germany would help Mexico regain the territory it lost in the Mexican- American War. As a result, the United States declared war on Germany.
War Affects the Home Front Governments Wage Total War- Countries devoted all their resources to the war effort. Total war meant that the government took control of the economy. They told the factories what to produce and how much. Facilities were turned into munitions factories and all able bodied citizens were required to work. Goods were rationed. The government used propaganda to increase morale for the war effort. Women and the War- Women were needed to help the war effort. Women replaced men in factories, offices and shops. Women were also involved in the war effort on the front lines as nurses.
The Allies Win the War Russia Withdraws- Due to shortages of food and fuel Russia withdrew from WWI. In 1917, Russia faced revolution and communist leader Vladimir Lenin seized power. The Central Powers Collapse- After Russia withdrew from the war, Germany focused their energy on France. With help and more soldiers from the United States the Germans were defeated and forced to surrender. An armistice was signed between France and Germany on November 11, 1918 and WWI ended.
The Legacy of the War The level of destruction from WWI was on a grand and global scale. Both sides had tremendous loss of human life. 8.5 million soldiers died and 21 million were wounded. The war had a huge economic impact on Europe the total cost was approximately $338 billion dollars. Much of Europe was destroyed, and there was a deep scar on society as well.
Critical Thinking 1. What effect did the Russian Revolution have on Russia’s role in WWI? 2. Why did wartime governments take control of their countries economies?
Review • List two reasons governments used propaganda. • Explain rationing.
Propaganda Poster During World War I, both Allied and Central Powers generated propaganda designed to create a negative view of the enemy and support for their own cause.
Examples 1. Demonizing the Enemy by portraying them as “monsters’ and glorifying the allies by portraying them as “heroes.”
Examples 2. A Call to join the armed forces
Examples 3. Promoting the practice of rationing and conservation.
Examples 4. Encouraging people, especially women, to join the work-force and insure war supplies are made.
Examples 5. Persuading people to buy war bonds to help finance (pay for) the war.
Propaganda Governments and Organizations use propaganda for the purpose of: • Spreading or promotingan idea, belief, or cause. • Convincing people to accept or support an idea, belief, or cause • Influencing public opinion and attitudes. • Calling people to ACTION!
Propaganda Poster • Cover assigned topic, (You Choose!) • Convince people to action. • Include a slogan that conveys the message • Include at least one symbol in the form of an artistic drawing • Be creative, neat and presentable • On the back of the poster write at least one complete paragraph that explains: How does it qualify as propaganda?
VocabularyChapter 13 Section 4 1. Woodrow Wilson 2. George Clemenceau 3. Self-determination 4. Treaty of Versailles 5. Fourteen Points 6. League of Nations
The Allies Meet and Debate Wilson’s Plan for Peace- U.S. President Woodrow Wilson drew up a series of peace proposals known as the Fourteen Points. The Versailles Treaty- The Treaty of Versailles was signed between Germany and France on June 28, 1919. The treaty created a League of Nations that was designed to keep peace among nations. The treaty also included a “war guilt clause” that blamed Germany with sole responsibility for the war. Germany was stripped of their colonial possessions as well.
A Troubled Treaty “A Peace Built on Quicksand”- In the end, the Treaty of Versailles did not create a lasting peace. The United States rejected the treaty and believed it was best to stay out of European affairs. The Treaty of Versailles left a legacy of bitterness and hatred in the hearts of the German people. This bitterness would be a key reason for the start of WWII.
Geography SkillbuilderUse Page 426 1. Which Central Powers nation appears to have lost the most territory? 2. On which nation’s former lands were the most of the new countries created?
Critical Thinking 1. Explain the “war guilt clause”. 2. Why was the United States fearful of the League of Nations and choose to not join?
THINK-PAIR-SHARE How would you feel if you were part of a disagreement between a group of friends, and the friends met to resolve the disagreement and decided to blame you for the entire situation. How would you feel? Do you think it’s fair to blame one person for a situation with multiple cause and parties involved?
G.R.A.P.E.S. G- Geography R- Religion A- Achievements P- Political E- Economics S- Social Structure