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THE RELIGIOUS WARS: The English Civil War (aka English/Puritan Revolution or The Wars of the Three Kingdoms ) PowerPoint Presentation
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THE RELIGIOUS WARS: The English Civil War (aka English/Puritan Revolution or The Wars of the Three Kingdoms ). Origins of the Conflict. The wars were the outcome of tensions between king and subjects over religious and civil issues.

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THE RELIGIOUS WARS:The English Civil War (aka English/Puritan Revolution or The Wars of the Three Kingdoms)

origins of the conflict
Origins of the Conflict
  • The wars were the outcome of tensions between king and subjects over religious and civil issues.
  • Religious disputes centered on whether religion was to be dictated by the monarch or the choice of the subject.
  • Civil questions were to what extent the king's rule was constrained by parliaments.
  • The wars also had an element of national conflict, as Ireland and Scotland rebelled against England's primacy within the Three Kingdoms.
king james vi i r 1603 1625
King James VI & I (r. 1603-1625)
  • House of Stuart of Scotland.
  • Belief in “divine right of kings,” wanted to rule without Parliament
  • Leadership of Church went to those with Arminian beliefs (predestination but with “good works”)
  • Archbishop Laud tried to impose Catholic-style ritual; Puritans dismayed.
  • King claimed “no bishop, no king” to Puritan demand to end bishop control.
charles i r 1625 1649
Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
  • Charles sought to rule without Parliament and to control the Anglican Church
  • Petition of Right, 1628: Parliament attempt to bribe king (taxes) in return for accepting Parliament’s right to tax, habeas corpus, no quartering, and no martial law in peacetime
  • Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629; ruled without until 1640 using collection of ship money
revolt in scotland
Revolt in Scotland
  • In 1637, English gov’t ordered the use of Anglican service in Scottish churches (Book of Common Prayer).
  • In 1638, thousands of Scots signed the Solemn League and Covenant, pledging to defend the Presbyterianism (Calvinism)
  • In 1639-40, the Scots rose in revolt, in which became The Bishops War.
the short parliament
The Short Parliament
  • Charles needed money to stop the revolt, so he called Parliament into session in April 1640.
  • The session lasted only three weeks as Parliament demanded concessions from the king.
  • Charles dissolved Parliament and used already assembled forces in Ireland and Scotland to suppress the revolt.
  • His forces were defeated at Newburn on Tyne in Aug. 1640, he needed to pay the Scots to keep peace until settlement was reached, therefore he recalled Parliament.
the long parliament
The Long Parliament
  • Parliament met on Nov. 3 1640 (and did not dissolve until 1653).
  • Parliament impeached and eventually condemned to death the Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud.
  • Parliament barred the levy of taxes without its approval, that Parliament should meet every 3 yrs, and the king could not dissolve Parliament
civil war begins
Civil War Begins
  • In the Grand Remonstrance of Nov. 1641, Parliament summarized its political and religious grievances.
  • In Jan. 1642, Charles sent troops to Parliament to arrest 5 of its leaders, they were warned and escaped.
  • Fearing for his safety, Charles left London and headed North to gather forces.
civil war
Civil War
  • Cavaliers: supported the king, strong in North and West.
  • Roundheads, Lawyers, doctors, merchants, gentry; Puritans opposed king; strong in South and East; allied with Scots.
civil war10
Civil War
  • Oliver Cromwell led “New Model Army”
  • Defeat the Cavaliers at Marstoon Moor in July 1644 and Nasby in June 1645.
  • King taken prisoner in May 1646.
  • “Pride’s Purge” creates Rump Parliament in Dec. 1648.
  • Rump Parliament executes Charles in Jan 1649.

Oliver Cromwell

the interregnum the commonwealth 1649 1653
The Interregnum:The Commonwealth (1649-1653)
  • Political power held in one-house parliament.
  • Council of State conducted daily affairs.
  • Cromwell pushes Puritan religious agenda.
  • English control established over Scotland; revolt in Ireland brutally crushed.
  • Clashed with radicals and lower classes.
    • Levellers: Radical religious revolutionaries; sought social and political reform – proto-communism.
    • Quakers: believed in “inner light”; rejected church authority; pacifists.
the interregnum the protectorate 1653 1659
The Interregnum:The Protectorate (1653-1659)
  • Cromwell dissolves the Council of State and the Rump Parliament in Apr. 1653; he replaces it with 140-member Barebone’s Parliament.
  • In late 1653, he dissolves this and takes title of Lord Protector (one man dictatorship supported by the army).
  • Cromwell goes to war with the Dutch and Spain over commercial issues. Dutch were defeated in 1654; in 1655 the English take Jamaica from the Spanish.
the restoration 1660
The Restoration - 1660
  • Cromwell dies in Sept. 1658. He is succeeded by his son Richard.
  • Richard resigns in May 1659 and the army took power.
  • General Monk moves to restore the monarchy.
  • Charles II (r. 1660-1685) returns to power from France

King Charles II