Croatian-English / English-Croatian. False cognates False pairs False friends. Translation analysis. The l exical level. Lexical analysis - with respect to:. 'reference' (ext. ling. content) - denotative meaning connotative meaning figurative meaning idiomatic use
I. analysis of lexical units / system in L1
II. analysis of lexical units / system in
L2 (formal correspondents)
III. back translation (i.e. which correspondents ensure TR equivalence and in which case (context of situation)
Def.: lexical pairs in two diff. languages which:
The term "false cognate" is sometimes misused to describe false friends. One difference between false cognates and false friends is that while false cognates mean roughly the same thing in two languages, false friends bear two distinct (sometimes even opposite) meanings. In fact, a pair of false friends may be true cognates (see false friends: causes).
False cognates are words that look or sound the same as words in the learner's first language but in fact are not so, causing the learner to make a mistake. False cognates are also known as false friends. They can be compared with cognates, which are words that are the same in different languages. Example The Spanish word 'sensible' means sensitive in English and the German word 'gift' means poison.
For example, the words preservative (English), préservatif (French), Präservativ (German), prezervativ (Romanian, Czech, Croatian), preservativo (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), prezerwatywa (Polish), презерватив "prezervativ" (Russian) and preservatiu (Catalan) are all derived from the Latin word præservativum. However, in all of these languages except English, the predominant meaning of the word is now condom.
Magazine in English and магазин (magazin) in Russian (from the French word magasin of the same meaning) mean "publication" and "shop/store", respectively. In Polish (in addition to "publication" and "shop/store" (which is now anachronous)), in Italianmagazzino and Dutch magazyn/magazijn also means "warehouse" (originating from a depot on the back of a shop).
In certain cases, false friends evolved separately in the different languages. Words usually change by small shifts in pronunciation accumulated over long periods and sometimes converge by chance on the same pronunciation or look despite having come from different roots.
For example, GermanRat (pronounced with a long "a") (= "council") is cognate with English "read" and German Rede (= "speech") (hence Æthelred the 'Unready' would not heed the speech of his advisors), while English "rat" for the rodent has its German cognate Ratte.
similar words with a different meaning are also quite common (e.g., Engl. become: German bekommen means "to get", that is, "to come by", not "to become", and is thus a false friend, which could lead a German English learner to utter an embarrassing sentence like: "I want to become a beefsteak.").
Both false friends and false cognates can cause difficulty for students learning a foreign language, particularly one that is related to their native language, because students are likely to identify the words wrongly due to linguistic interference.
One kind of false friend can occur when two speakers speak different varieties of the same language. Speakers of British English and American English sometimes have this problem, which was alluded to in George Bernard Shaw's statement "England and America are two countries divided by a common language". For example, in the UK, to "table" a motion means to place it on the agenda, while in the U.S. it means exactly the opposite —"to remove it from consideration".
From the etymological point of view, false friends can be created in several ways:
The basic kinship terms mama and papa comprise a special case of false cognates (cf. !Kungba, Chinesebàba, Persianbaba, and Frenchpapa (all "dad"); or
Examples from the EUROVOC project quoted below are ‘cinematographic industry/production’ (instead of ‘film industry/production’) and ‘concentrated milk’ (instead of ‘condensed milk’). In such cases, it is clearly up to the translator to decide whether a particular text calls for the usual expression or the EU term.
arhivsko (G), arhivskovino – vintage wine. The term ‘vintage’ is also used to refer to the year a wine was produced (letnik). An archive is where historical records or documents are stored; the BBC also has a famous ‘sound archive’ on tape.
degradirati – deteriorate (e.g. environmental conditions). Degrade is also used in reference to the environment, depending on the context; it has the additional meaning of to decay or break down – in the phrase ‘biologically degradable’ it has positive connotations.
dispozicija – (written) proposal (e.g. for a university dissertation), outline. The term disposition has the following main uses: tendency (e.g. he has a disposition to gamble’); outlook on life (e.g. ‘she has a very sweet disposition’); a willingness to do something (from the expression ‘disposed to’); arrangement or placing (e.g. of troops or buildings); the power to dispose of a thing, particularly funds (used mainly in legal contexts).
ekološki, ekološkatržnica– organic market; ekološkogibanje – environmental group (e.g. Greenpeace), environmental movement (i.e. in general); ekološkidavek – environmental tax (EU); ekološkalinija – environment-friendly product (e.g. washing up liquid). Ecological is used in collocations such as ‘ecological balance’ (ekološkoravnotežje) and ‘ecological disaster’ (ekološkanesreča). Note that ‘organic farming’is biokmetovanje(EU).
fascikel – ring binder. A fascicle is defined in Webster’s as ‘a section of a book or set of books being published in instalments as separate pamphlets or volumes’.
gaziran (G) The most frequent way of describing gaziranavodain both written and spoken English is now ‘sparkling water’. The word ‘fizzy’ is a common. colloquial use and in EU texts the word ‘aerated’ is used. Note that negaziranavodais ‘still (mineral) water’.
indeks – (student) record book, registration book. Note that these documents are not used in the British education system, so these translations are suggestions.
kabina – booth (e.g. interpreter’s), changing room (e.g. in clothes shop), (telephone) kiosk; kabinadvigala – lift. A cabin may be a small wooden dwelling, the part of the plane where passengers sit, a room on a ship, or a passenger space on a cable car.
klasifikacija, klasifikacijazgodovinskihspomenikov – listing of historical buildings and monuments.
konfesionalen, konfesionalnadružba – non-secular state (EU). Note that a ‘secular state’ is laicističnadržava.
leasing (lizing) – hire purchase (BrE), buy on credit (e.g. when buying a car – dealers may offer ‘interest free’ or ‘low interest’ credit deals/arrangements). If you lease a car (as many companies do) you can use it for a fixed period of time in return for regular payments; the term does not refer to buying on credit terms. Note that kredit(G) if obtained from a bank is called a loan (also posojilo); you buy something ‘on credit’ at a showroom, shop or elsewhere by signing a credit agreement or by using a credit card.
maksimalen – maximum. The term maximal is rarely used (but see note on minimalen).
nekvalificiran, nekvalificirandelavec – unskilled worker (EU). In English you may be unqualified for a particular position (even one you hold), but the adjective is not used generically.
potencial – capability (usually plural, as in contexts such as ‘the capabilities of the armed forces’, i.e. what a person or thing is capable of). Note that potential, which is usually an uncountable noun, either implies possibility, that something may happen, as in ‘The potential for error is great’, or has a similar meaning to the noun ‘promise’: for example, ‘As an artist, she shows a lot of potential’.
salon (G), pohištveni salon – furniture showroom; avto salon – car showroom. Note that 'showroom' is not only AmE as indicated in the glossary.
stimulacija – bonus (e.g. paid to employees with extra responsibility).
univerzalen – general (e.g. factors, effects, results). The term universal applies in all cases, to every part of the world or universe, or to a whole group or society; the Slovene term seems to be used more widely or loosely (similarly to globalen).
Denglisch 1: The use of English words in German, with an attempt to incorporate them into German grammar. Examples: downloaden - ichhabe den File gedownloadet/downgeloadet. - Heutehabenwirein Meeting mit den Consultants.*