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FC.87 THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS (1560-1598) PowerPoint Presentation
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FC.87 THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS (1560-1598)

FC.87 THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS (1560-1598)

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FC.87 THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS (1560-1598)

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  1. FC.87 THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS (1560-1598) Medieval mentality linking relig. w/social & political issues Catholic Ref. (FC.86) Protestant Ref. (FC.84) Protestant power grows in 1520s & 1530s as HRE emperor Charles V is hampered by other problems: Charles’ empire  Enemies & wars that divert attention from Ger. $ problems  Armies desert Divided Ger. Hard to rule When Charles is finally able to defeat Protestants, Ger. Cath. princes & France, fearing his growing power, undermine his victory Peace of Augsburg (1555) lets each Ger. prince choose Catholicism or Lutheranism Charles V splits emp. b/w Austrian & Sp. branches Fervent Cath. Philip II of Spain Calv’s & Anab’s flee & spread relig. to Neth’s & Fr. Many Ger. princes still turn Calvinist Tensions rise Growing relig. unrest in Spanish Netherlands Growing relig. unrest in Fr. b/w Cath’s & Calvinists Relig. tension b/w Sp. & Eng. Eng. raid Spanish shipping Eng. aids Dutch rebels Spanish repression Riots & protests Fr. govt. weakens Growing anarchy Philip II of Spain tries to dethrone Eliz. I of Eng. Bitter wars aggravated by weak govt., feudal separatism, noble feuds, & foreign intervention Despite disunity, rebels hang on due to seizing sea ports, good leadership, & unpop. Sp. atrocities Sp. Armada launched vs. Eng., Fr., & Neth’s Beaten by Eng. (1588) Dutch milit. reforms, econ. power, naval vict’s & raids on Sp. shipping  Indep. in 1648 Calv. leader, Henry of Navarre ends wars & secures throne by turning Catholic Saves Protestant cause in W. Eur. & weakens Spain Basis for Louis XIV’s abs. monarchy in 1600s (FC.95) Dutch econ. & naval domin. in 1600s (FC.93) Sets stage for 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

  2. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO How unified were they ?

  3. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; How many legal systems?

  4. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems;

  5. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs

  6. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows

  7. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy How rich were they?

  8. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas

  9. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas How much of Europe’s outside trade came in through Antwerp? Antwerp in 1500s

  10. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade Business in Antwerp

  11. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip...? Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip..? We never spend any time together anymore

  12. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them OUCH!

  13. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) Maybe if you paid your taxes on time we would We never spend any time together anymore

  14. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill I’m tired of being your bitch

  15. Philip II of Spain: “The Sad King”

  16. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than? Philip II of Spain (1556-98)

  17. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill • - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule • over heretics That’s 13 down & 87 to go Philip’s ruling style?

  18. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill • Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” • than rule over heretics • - 8-9 hrs.rdg. & writing letters/day Philip’s waiting room & bed chamber at his palace, the Escorial

  19. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill • Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” • than rule over heretics • - 8-9 hrs.rdg. & writing letters/day • -> Later used ministers to help handle load Philip II’s palace, the Escorial was in an isolated location outside of Madrid, indicative of his own solitary temperament

  20. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill • Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” • than rule over heretics • - 8-9 hrs.rdg. & writing letters/day • -> Later used ministers to help handle load • - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" Philip II’s palace, the Escorial was in an isolated location outside of Madrid, indicative of his own solitary temperament

  21. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) • INTRO • - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; • Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs: 10 S. prov’s from Mary • of Burgundy in late 1400s & 7 N. prov’s in 1543 • - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows • - 40 % literacy • - 7X revenue as Americas • -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade • - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them • - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) • - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill • Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” • than rule over heretics • - 8-9 hrs.rdg. & writing letters/day • -> Later used ministers to help handle load • - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" • - Dressed in black; knelt before processions

  22. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs Some of Philip’s many relics. Each was kept in a container reflecting what type of relic it was (finger, leg, etc.)

  23. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's Philip’s chapel at the Escorial

  24. “Singeing the Sultan’s beard”: The Battle of Lepanto (1571)

  25. Malta

  26. The island of Malta, strategically placed midway between Sicily and North Africa, saw some of the fiercest fighting ever between Muslims and Christians when the Turks besieged it in 1566. The defending Knights of St. John (who had been given the island after being driven from Rhodes in 1522) defended the island with every trick in the book, including flaming hoops to catch the Turks’ robes on fire. The Turkish bombardment was supposedly so intense it could be heard in Sicily 100 miles to the north. A Christian relief army finally arrived to drive off the Turkish army, already weakened by heavy casualties and disease. Of 9,000 defenders, only 2,000 survived the siege, and of those only 600 were fit for service.

  27. In 1571, a coalition consisting of Spain,Venice, Genoa, the Knights of St. John, and the pope formed to meet the Turkish naval threat. The decisive struggle took place in 1571 at Lepanto off the coast of Greece.

  28. A typical galley used in naval warfare in the calmer waters of the Mediterranean in the 1500s

  29. Another galley, this one armed with artillery fore and aft. Such ships were so narrow they could not take the recoil of a full broadside of cannons without capsizing. However, some larger European galleys at Lepanto had 30 cannons, many mounted on the front so the shock of their recoil could be absorbed along the entire length of the beam.

  30. A Venetian war galley, showing the arrangement of the rowers & guns.

  31. Mediterranean naval battles were basically land battles fought on water, with opposing forces trying to board and capture each other’s ships. In extreme circumstances, ships might even ram enemy vessels.

  32. The Turks had 274 ships & 88,000 men against the Christian fleet of 213 ships. Since there was nowhere to run, fighting was particularly desperate. By the end of the battle, there were ships drifting about with their entire crews of rowers and marines dead. ***********************************************

  33. Fighting was so desperate that at one point in the battle, when the Turks were out of ammunition, they resorted to throwing lemons and oranges.

  34. The fighting over the Turkish flagship, Royal Sultana

  35. El Greco’s Worship of the Name of Christ (c.1579) allegorizes the battle of Lepanto with Philip II joining in prayer. The Christian victory at Lepanto checked Turkish expansion across the Mediterranean only for a short while.

  36. FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT

  37. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of?

  38. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's

  39. Outdoor or “hedge” preaching in the countryside of the Netherlands where Calvinist and Anabaptist refugees from Germany held services in the absence of churches or other structures

  40. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. Nickname of the petitioners for reform & their resulting slogan?

  41. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets A silver and wood beggar’s bowl made specially for a Dutch noble to advertise his opposition to Philip II’s policies

  42. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope"

  43. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope" The Execution of Egmont & Horn, two leaders of the Dutch protests Repression ?

  44. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope" The Execution of Egmont & Horn, two leaders of the Dutch protests Cycle of repression protest ?

  45. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope" - Cycle of repression protest The Execution of Egmont & Horn, two leaders of the Dutch protests

  46. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope" - Cycle of repression protest - What was the Duke. of Alva's repression called? Ferdinand Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva (or Alba)

  47. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463)-> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope" - Cycle of repression protest - Duke. of Alva's Council of Blood Executions of Dutch protesters in Haarlem during the Duke of Alva’s so-called “Council of Blood”

  48. REVOLT OF THE SPANISH NETHERLANDS (1567-1648) INTRO - 17 prov's; 700 law systems; - Came in 2 parts to Hapsburgs - Tour of 1549: beer, betting, women, big cows - 40 % literacy - 7X revenue as Americas -Antwerp 50% Eur's outside trade - Charles neglected Neth’s but Philip abused them - 1 village’s taxes:9 florins (1463) -> 116 (1520's) - Charles annual rev. 300K florins; needed 1 mill - Philip II: would rather "die 100 deaths” than rule over heretics - 8-9 hrs. letters/day -> Later used ministers to help handle load - Outlived 4 wives & 6/9 kids-> "The sad king" - Dressed in black; knelt before processions - 7422 relics, 12 bodies, 144 heads, 306 limbs - Faith in God’s favor even-> winter exped's FROM PROTEST TO REVOLT - Peace of Augsburg-> Influx of Anab's & Calv's - Raised #bishops 4->16; prob. needed for bigger pop. - "Long live the Beggars," Beggars' banquets - "Better the Turk than the Pope" - Cycle of repression protest - Duke. of Alva's Council of Blood ->12K trials; 9K convictions; 1K exec. - Name of d Duke of Alva’s very unpopular tax?