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English Teaching Materials and Methodology. Yueh-chiu Helen Wang National Penghu University. ESL vs. EFL. ESL refers to English as a Second Language taught in countries (such as the United States, the United Kingdom, or India) where English is a major language of commerce and education).

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English teaching materials and methodology

English Teaching Materials and Methodology

Yueh-chiu Helen Wang

National Penghu University


Esl vs efl
ESL vs. EFL

  • ESL refers to English as a Second Language taught in countries (such as the United States, the United Kingdom, or India) where English is a major language of commerce and education).


English teaching materials and methodology


Cognitive principles
Cognitive Principles Korea or Brazil where English is not a major language of commerce and education.

  • 1. automaticity: The Principle of Automaticity includes the importance of the following items:

  • a) subconscious absorption of language through meaningful use

  • b) efficient and rapid movement away from a focus on the forms of language to a focus on the purposes to which language is put


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology

  • Because classroom learning ordinarily applies to adult instruction, say to you as a teacher? Here are some possibilities:

  • (1) Because classroom learning normally begins with controlled, focal processing, there is no mandate to entirely avoid overt attention to language systems (of grammar, phonology, discourse).


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


2 meaningful learning
2.Meaningful Learning need to exercise patience with students as you slowly help them to achieve fluency.

  • Meaningful learning “subsumes” new information into existing structures and memory systems, and the resulting associative links create stronger retention.


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology

  • Meaningful learning will lead toward better long-term retention than rote learning. The principle of meaningful learning tells us that some aural-oral drilling is appropriate; selected phonological elements like phonemes, rhythm, stress, and intonation, for example, can be effectively taught through pattern repetition.


3 the anticipation of reward
3.The Anticipation of Reward retention than rote learning. The principle of meaningful learning tells us that some aural-oral drilling is appropriate; selected phonological elements like phonemes, rhythm, stress, and intonation, for example, can be effectively taught through pattern repetition.

  • According to Skinner, the anticipation of reward is the most powerful factor in directing one’s behavior.

  • You can appreciate the importance of the immediate administration of rewards such as the teacher’s praise for correct responses (“Very good”, or “Nice job!”), appropriate grades or scores to indicate success, or other public recognition.


English teaching materials and methodology


4 the intrinsic motivation principle
4. The Intrinsic Motivation Principle encouragement to students as a form of short-term reward.

  • The most powerful rewards are those that are intrinsically motivated within the learner. Because the behavior stems from needs, wants, or desires within oneself, the behavior itself is self-rewarding.


English teaching materials and methodology


5 strategic investment
5. Strategic investment if they are self-rewarding in the perception of the learner: The learners perform the task because it is fun, interesting, useful or challenging.

  • Successful mastery of the second language will be due to a large extent to a learner’s own personal “investment” of time, effort, and attention to the second language in the form of an individualized battery of strategies for comprehending and producing the language.


English teaching materials and methodology


Affective principles
Affective Principles attention becomes increasingly difficult; in “extra large” classes, it is virtually impossible. The principle of strategic investment is a reminder to provide as much attention as you can to each individual student.

  • 6. Language ego: As human beings learn to use a second language, they also develop a new mode of thinking, feeling, and acting—a second identity. The new “language ego” intertwined with the second language, can easily create within the learner a sense of fragility, a defensiveness, and a raising of inhibitions.


English teaching materials and methodology

  • All second language learners need to be treated with affective tender loving care.

  • (1) Overtly display a supportive attitude to your students. Your “warm and fuzzy” patience and empathy need to be openly and clearly communicated, for fragile language egos have a way of misinterpreting intended input.


English teaching materials and methodology


7 self confidence
7. Self-confidence of techniques and sequences of techniques needs to be cognitively challenging but not overwhelming at an affective level.

  • The eventual success that learners attain in a task is at least partially a factor of their belief that they indeed are fully capable of accomplishing the task.


8 risk taking
8. Risk-taking of techniques and sequences of techniques needs to be cognitively challenging but not overwhelming at an affective level.

  • Successful language learners must be willing to become “gamblers” in the game of language, to attempt to produce and to interpret language that is a bit beyond their absolute certainty.


How can your classrooms reflect the principle of risk taking
How can your classrooms reflect the Principle of Risk-taking?

  • (1) Create an atmosphere in the classroom that encourages students to try out language, to venture a response, and not just to wait for someone else to volunteer language.


English teaching materials and methodology


9 the language culture connection
9. The Language-culture Connection them neither too easy nor too hard.

  • Whenever you teach a language, you also teach a complex system of cultural customs, values, and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting.


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


Linguistic principles
Linguistic Principles depressed and do what you can to assist them.

  • 10. The Native Language Effect: The native language of every learner is an extremely significant factor in the acquisition of a new language.


English teaching materials and methodology

  • The native language of learners will be a highly significant system on which learners will rely to predict the target language system. While that native system will exercise both facilitating and interfering effects on the production and comprehension of the new language, the interfering effects are likely to be the most salient.


11 interlanguage
11. Interlanguage system on which learners will rely to predict the target language system. While that native system will exercise both facilitating and interfering effects on the production and comprehension of the new language, the interfering effects are likely to be the most salient.

  • Second language learners tend to go through a systematic or quasi-systematic developmental process as they progress to full competence in the target language. Successful interlanguage language development is partially a factor of utilizing feedback from others.


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


12 communicative competence
12. Communicative competence sure that you provide ample affective feedback—verbal or nonverbal—in order to encourage them to speak.

  • Given that communicative competence is the goal of a language classroom, then instruction needs to point toward all of its components: organizational, pragmatic, strategic, and psychomotor. Communicative goals are best


English teaching materials and methodology


Assignment
Assignment just usage, to fluency and not just accuracy, to authentic language and contexts, and to students’ eventual need to apply classroom learning to unrehearsed contexts in the real world.

  • The twelve principles are obviously all very important. If you were forced to pick them up, which three principles would you pick to be at the top of your list? Why? Pool your thoughts and share your ideas with your peers.


Intrinsic motivation in the classroom
Intrinsic motivation in the classroom just usage, to fluency and not just accuracy, to authentic language and contexts, and to students’ eventual need to apply classroom learning to unrehearsed contexts in the real world.

  • Defining motivation: Motivation is the extent to which you make choice about goals to pursue and the effort you will devote to that pursuit.


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


2 cognitive definitions
2. Cognitive definitions classroom. Learners pursue goals in order to receive externally administered rewards: praise, gold stars, grades, certificates, diplomas, scholarships, and etc.

  • A. Drive theory: Those who see human drives as fundamental to human behavior claim that motivation stems from basic innate drives. Ausubel (1968) elaborated on six different drives:

  • Exploration

  • manipulation


English teaching materials and methodology

  • Activity classroom. Learners pursue goals in order to receive externally administered rewards: praise, gold stars, grades, certificates, diplomas, scholarships, and etc.

  • Stimulation

  • Knowledge

  • Ego enhancement


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology

  • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: make one’s own choices, whether they be in short-term or long-term contexts. This theory is centered on the importance of people deciding for themselves what to think or feel or do.

  • Intrinsically motivated behaviors are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination.


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


Assignment1
assignment superior to extrinsic. According to his hierarchy of needs, we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.

  • What do the three cognitive definitions of motivation have in common?


Approach method and technique
Approach, method, and technique superior to extrinsic. According to his hierarchy of needs, we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.

  • For the century spanning the mid-1880s to the mid-1980s, the language-teaching profession may be aptly characterized by a series of methods that rose and declined in popularity. Historical accounts of the profession tend to describe a succession of methods.


Method
Method superior to extrinsic. According to his hierarchy of needs, we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.

  • A method, according to Richards and Rogers, was “an umbrella terms for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice” (1982, p. 154).


Approach
Approach superior to extrinsic. According to his hierarchy of needs, we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.

  • An approach defines assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and language learning.


Design
Design superior to extrinsic. According to his hierarchy of needs, we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.

  • Designs specify the relationship of those theories to classroom materials and activities.


Procedure
Procedure superior to extrinsic. According to his hierarchy of needs, we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.

  • Procedures are the techniques and practices that are derived from one’s approach and design.


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology


English teaching materials and methodology