Why Imperialism? • Need for raw resources!!! (Why do we SUDDENLY need so many natural resources?) • Need for military bases (Why do we SUDDENLY need international military bases?) • NATIONALISM!!!!!!!! • Humanitarian reasons including the ideas of White Man’s Burden and an emphasis on religious conversion
The White Man’s Burden: Rudyard Kipling Take up the White Man’s burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine, And bid sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest (The end for others sought) Watch sloth and heathen folly Bring all your hope to naught. Take up the White Man’s burden-- No Iron rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper-- The tale of common things. The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread, Go, make them with your living And mark them with your dead. • Take up the White Man’s burden-- • Send forth the best ye breed-- • Go, bind your sons to exile • To serve your captive’s needs; • To wait, in heavy harness, • On fluttered fold and wild-- • Your new-caught sullen peoples, • Half-devil and half child. • Take up the White Man’s burden-- • In patience to abide, • To veil the threat of terror • And check the show of pride; • By open speech and simple, • An hundred times made plain, • To seek another’s profit • And work another’s gain.
“I contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race. . . . It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.” • - CECIL RHODES, Confession of Faith 1877
Imperialism under McKinleySpanish American War“The Splendid Little War” • Spain’s empire was crumbling but they still owned Cuba • America was interested in Cuba because of the sugar cane that was grown there • Cuba was encouraged to rebel and did. Many Cubans were placed in concentration camps and thousands died. • American Yellow Journalists wanted to go to Cuba and find a war so that they could write about it. When they got to Cuba, they realized that there wasn’t a war. (Hurst vs Pulitzer)
Spanish American War Continued • USS Maine explodes (no one knows why but yellow journalists blame the Spaniards) • America helps the Philippines prepare to fight for their independence, infuriating the Spanish • McKinley calls for Spain to pay for the Maine and to free Cuba. Spain refuses. • America, led by Dewey, attacks and sinks Spanish ships. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders invade.
Results of Spanish American War • America pays Spain 20 million for Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico (What do we still own?) • Teller Amendment: American would not annex Cuba • Platt Amendment: US gets to have naval bases in Cuba, Cuba can’t enter in to international agreements without asking the US
American Imperialism Elsewhere • Puerto Ricans get American citizenship under the Jones Act. • American annexes Hawaii (Why do we want Hawaii?) • America buys Alaska from Russia. Many people didn’t understand this and it was referred to as “Seward’s Folly”. (What does this mean?) • Filipinos fight for independence. Thousands die and US practices scorched earth policy.
Panama Canal • Attempted to build this before but gave up after ten days. Columbia owned Panama. • Spooner Act- US supports Panamanian Independence • Hay-Banau-Varilla Treaty- US pays Panama 10 million to build canal, Panama gives permanent ownership
Asia • Japan was practicing isolationism and US wanted bases in Asia. • (Under Millard Fillmore) Asked Japan to open doors but Japan refused. United States sent ships to dock in the Sea of Japan, threatening to invade until Japan agreed to allow US presence. Japan does. • American enters in to an Open Door Policy with China, meaning that all people can trade with China.
Types of Diplomacy Big Stick Diplomacy: US polices world. This includes adding the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. (Teddy gets Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating Russo-Japanese War) Dollar Diplomacy: US lends struggling countries money in return for support Moral Diplomacy: US should give democracy to struggling countries