ap u s history chapter 21 n.
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  2. Post-Civil War America • lack of imperial ambitions • weak state department and small military

  3. By the late 1800s, the U.S. took its first steps toward building an empire. • IMPERIALISM • To create an empire by dominating weaker nations.

  4. WHY IMPERIALISM GREW • 1- economics (need for raw materials from underdeveloped countries & new markets to sell goods) • 2- nationalism (superiority) • 3- military competition (stronger, more advanced than weaker nations) • 4- humanitarian factors (spread ideas of western civilization to the world)

  5. EUROPE LED THE WAY • improved transportation and communication • Great Britain acquired territory in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific • By 1890, the U.S. was ready to join the competition!

  6. European imperialism

  7. Scramble for Africa

  8. AMERICAN EXPANDING INTERESTS • Monroe Doctrine used to justify (DON’T MESS WITH THE U.S.!) • 1- acquisition of territories from Mexico (CA) • 2- annexation of Texas • 3- purchase of Alaska from Russia (1867) • 4- open trade with Japan, China • 5- annexation of the Midway Islands in Pacific (refueling/repair stations for navy) • 6- favorable trade terms with Hawaii • 7- protection of Caribbean Islands and Latin America

  9. Purchase of Alaska, 1867 • Secretary of State Seward negotiated this purchase from Russia • “Seward’s Folly” cost the USA $7,200,000

  10. ARGUMENTS FOR IMPERIALISM • 1- PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH • produce too much…need new markets • business leaders invested in economies of other countries (Banana Republics) • 2- PROTECT AMERICAN SECURITY • strong navy to protect overseas trade • 3- PRESERVE THE AMERICAN SPIRIT • restore pioneer spirit • noble pursuit: spread Christianity & civilization to “inferiors”

  11. Displays of U.S. Power • Strong demands to Chile for $75,000 to American families who lost sailors because of Chilean mob attack. • Naval units to Rio de Janeiro to protect U.S. shipping interests. • U.S. demanded Britain abide by Monroe Doctrine and submit to arbitration with Venezuela over boundary dispute. • After first refusing, Britain finally complied.

  12. The Spanish American War • An aggressive foreign policy brought the US into conflict with other nations. • In the 1890s, several instances took place in Latin America that helped the US display their strength and role in foreign affairs.

  13. Cuban Rebellion • Cubans wanted independence from Spain • Spain and General Weyler instituted a policy of “reconcentration” camps to prevent rebellions. • Poor conditions…over 200,000 Cubans died • Cubans urged U.S. gov’t to get involved (we did not) • Cubans destroyed American sugar plantation and mills • Business owners urged U.S. to get involved (we did not)

  14. Spain’s Gen. Weyler

  15. Yellow Journalism • Newspaper competition for readers…led to sensationalism • Exaggerated stories, vivid headlines and stories • Took advantage of Cuban rebellion and concentration camps • Garnered support for U.S. intervention in Cuba

  16. Steps to the Spanish American War • The de Lome letter - De Lome: Spanish ambassador - Criticized McKinley as “weak” • Explosion of the USS Maine - 250 American sailors dead - U.S. blamed Spain • Preparing in the Philippines - Filippinos rebelling against Spain - Admiral Dewey ordered to attack Spanish fleet in Philippines IF war broke out with Spain • McKinley’s War Message - Sent list of demands to Spain - Spain refused to recognize Cuba’s independence - McKinley sent war message to Congress

  17. U.S.S. Maine

  18. “A Splendid Little War” • War’s 1st action: Admiral Dewey destroyed Spanish fleet in the Philippines • US ships trapped Spanish fleet in Cuba’s Santiago Harbor • Land invasion • Teddy Roosevelt & Rough Riders take San Juan Hill • US ships destroyed Spanish at Santiago

  19. TR’s Rough Riders

  20. Rough Riders in combat

  21. The Treaty of Paris • Ends war • Spain recognized Cuba’s independence • US paid $20 million for Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam

  22. New Challenges After the War • Dilemma in the Philippines • The Fate of Cuba • The U.S. and Puerto Rico • Annexation of Hawaii • Samoa • An Open Door to China

  23. Philippines • President McKinley wanted to annex • Filippinos & their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, fought 3 year war against U.S. • The Philippines did not get complete independence until 1946

  24. Most troops remained in the Philippines for four years

  25. Gains for the USA Acquired raw materials such as latex and sugar Gained markets of sales of commercial products Gains for the Philippines USA spent money to build schools, roads, bridges, and other forms of infrastructure Filipinos gained a degree of self-government Philippine Islands in retrospect

  26. Cuba • U.S. installed military gov’t (to protect American business interests) • Organized school system • Restored economic stability • U.S. authorized Cubans to draft Constitution • Agreed to remove troops if Cubans accepted Platt Amendment • No foreign agreements, establish U.S. naval bases, U.S. gets right to intervene whenever necessary

  27. Puerto Rico • U.S. maintained military gov’t until 1900 • Developed infrastructure, education, police

  28. Hawaii, 1820s-1898 • USA was involved with Hawaii since the 1820s • Important (Sugar, Pearl Harbor) • Initial attempts for annexation failed (1854 and early 1890s)

  29. Queen Liliuokalani • Queen Lil opposed U.S. control of islands • Set up new Constitution in 1891, granting more rights to Hawaiians • Removed from power by Dole and U.S. marines; republic established

  30. US Troops in Hawaii

  31. Hawaii annexed, 1898

  32. Samoa • U.S. wanted islands for trade with Asia

  33. Samoa Islands, 1840-1880s

  34. China • U.S. wanted equal access to trade with China • Other nations were establishing spheres of influence • Boxer Rebellion: Chinese resented foreign influence

  35. Open Door Policy • John Hay declared that China would have an “Open Door” regarding trade • Hay essentially declared commercial equality with China

  36. Election of 1900 • McKinley wins! • Assassinated in 1901 • VP Teddy Roosevelt takes over

  37. The Panama Canal • Need for a shorter route between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans • From San Francisco to New York • 6,100 vs. 15,000 miles • Global shipping faster and cheaper • Quick transport in times of war

  38. Panama Canal, 1914

  39. Building the Canal • Isthmus of Panama: perfect spot • Province of Columbia • The French purchased concession (land grant) to build canal • Gave up b/c of disease and mismanagement • US bought rest of French concession (1902) • Had to work out treaty with Columbia for lease on land • Negotiations went nowhere- Columbian gov’t wanted to wait for French treaty to expire (1904) & sell land for much higher price

  40. Rebels in Panama revolted against Columbia • US recognized independent Panama & become its protector • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty • US received permanent land grant for canal & paid Panama $10 million

  41. Reaction to the Canal • Most Americans approved TR’s actions to get land to build canal • Ill-will with Columbia • We provoked Panamanian Revolt • After TR died, we paid Columbia $25 million compensation

  42. Pro-Imperialism • Would keep Americans from losing their competitive edge • New kind of frontier for American expansion • Celebration of American tradition and creative spirit • Growth and popularity of youth scout programs • Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts • Practical advantages • Need to gain access to foreign markets • Strategic military advantages • Great White Fleet shows off our navy

  43. Anti-Imperialism • Anti-Imperialist League established • Moral and political arguments • Not “liberty for all” • People in territories controlled by the US should be entitled to the same guarantees in the Constitution as US citizens • Expansionists claimed people in the Caribbean and Pacific were not ready for democracy • Imperialism threatened the nation’s democratic foundations

  44. Anti-Imperialism • Racial Arguments • Racism • Many southern politicians feared what would happen if we absorbed more people of different races into the US • Economic Arguments • Too many costs • Job competition from immigrants who would work for less • American industries could be hurt from annexed country’s industries (cheap good, no customs duties on imports)

  45. Imperialism Viewed from Abroad • Pattern of international involvement • the US often had to defend gov’ts that were unpopular with locals • Panamanians began to claim that they suffered from discrimination • Other countries began to turn to the US for help

  46. Teddy Roosevelt • BIG STICK DIPLOMACY • Used threat of military force (navy) to conduct aggressive foreign policy • ROOSEVELT COROLLARY: US would intervene to prevent intervention from other powers • Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) went bankrupt, Europeans threatened to intervene to collect $, US took over country’s finances & paid its debt • US intervention in Latin America common • Wanted to maintain open door to China • Negotiated settlement to Russo-Japanese War