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Environmental Impacts of Alternative & Future Energy Sources - Overview

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  1. Environmental Impacts of Alternative & Future Energy Sources - Overview 2008 AWMA Southern Section Annual Meeting & Tech. Conf. 05 AUG – 08 AUG 2008 R. Mark Bricka Mississippi State University Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering

  2. Current Energy Use • Electricity Generation – Coal & Natural Gas Most Used • Transportation – Essentially all Petrochemical • Heat – Coal / Oil / NG / Electricity • Uses • Home/Industrial Space Heat • CPI / Industrial Usage

  3. Energy Sources The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption in the Nation’s Energy Supply, 2007 Source: EIA’s Renewable Energy Annual Report May 2008

  4. What is Alternative Energy • Alternative energy a transpiration fuel, electrical power or thermal energy derived from a renewable (non-petrochemical) source.

  5. Types of Alternative Energy • Nuclear – Thermal/Electrical • Hydropower – Electrical/Mechanical • Tidal Power – Electrical/Mechanical • Geothermal– Thermal/Electrical • Fuel Cells– Electrical • Solar – Heat/Electrical • Wind Energy – Electrical • Biogas Energy – Thermal/Electrical • Biomass Energy – Thermal/Electrical

  6. Solar • Heat • Passive • Active • Electricity • Photovoltaic Cells

  7. Wind Energy • Turbines • Inefficient • Land Usage

  8. Fuel Cells • Convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat, rather than oxidize fuel • Fuel catalytically reacted – typically H2

  9. Biomass – the Low Hanging Fruit • Energy Crops • Agricultural and Forestry Waste • Industrial and Consumer Waste • Manures

  10. Biogas Energy • Combustion Process • Landfills • Digesters • Cow /Pig / Poultry • Human

  11. Bio Energy/ Bio Fuels • Fuels • Methane • Ethanol • Methanol • Bio Diesel • Syn Gas • Bio Oil

  12. Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Energy Combustion Heat Heat Boilers Producer Gas Turbines Electricity Gasification Engines Chemicals Fuels Biological Process Pyrolysis Bio-Oil

  13. Syn Gas / Bio Oil • Combustion • Excess air • H2O & CO2 • Gasification • Less than stoichiometric air • H2, CO, CO2 & H2O • Pyrolysis • Absence of Air

  14. Gasifier

  15. MSU Gasification

  16. Pouring Bio-Oil

  17. Bio - Oil

  18. Pyrolysis Unit

  19. Natchez Trace Greenhouses

  20. Environmental Impacts of Alternative & Future Energy Sources - Overview 2008 AWMA Southern Section Annual Meeting & Tech. Conf. 05 AUG – 08 AUG 2008 R. Mark Bricka Mississippi State University Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering