Futuristic Energy Sources by R. ChidambaramPrincipal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India Special Address at 7th Non-Fossil Energy Summit organized by India Energy Forum on 12th September, 2007 at New Delhi
The Energy Need India needs to substantially increase its per capita electricity consumption to catch-up with the ‘developed’ part of the world.
Projected Energy requirement of India from National Energy Map for India-PSA/2006/3 by TERI • Energy efficient technologies such as LEDs (approximate project cost Rs. 1000.00 crores). • Advanced coal technologies such as IGCC (approximate project cost Rs. 800.00 crores for ~100 MWe demonstration plant). • More rail transport.
Societal Industry or Strategic Interest Societal Industry or Strategic Interest Industry Interest Scientific Interest Basic Research Pre-Competitive Applied Research Applied Research And Product Development “Directed” Basic Research The Possible Dominant Linkages among Needed Research and Development Efforts
Working Group on R&D for the Energy Sector for the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan(2007-2012) • A Working Group was constituted by the Planning Commission in May, 2006, for formulating R&D proposals in the Energy Sector to be implemented during the Eleventh Five Year Plan. • The Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India was the Chairman of the Working Group, with scientists and technologists of various organizations, such as the TIFAC, the IITD, the BHEL, the NTPC, the IOC, the TERI, the CMPDIL, etc., as Members. • The Working Group submitted its report, for implementation, to the Planning Commission in December, 2006. Report on our website www.psa.gov.in
Directed Basic Research - Combustion Research Initiative • 92 percent of India’s energy use involves some form of combustion or other. Yet, even today, our understanding of combustion processes is limited and with it our ability to effectively control and manage combustion processes. • New automobile engine technologies are quite complex and would need sophisticated combustion diagnostic techniques to validate engine fluid dynamic and combustion models. • A Combustion Research Institute has been proposed for the 11th Five Year Plan. Authors: Dr. V.K. Saraswat, DRDO; Dr. Anand Patwardhan, TIFAC and Dr. V. Sumantran, formerly Executive Director, Tata Motors Limited.
Advanced Coal Technologies • IGCC – Setting-up of the first (~100 MWe) IGCC demonstration plant in the country jointly by the BHEL and the NTPC – R&D Committee on IGCC of the PSA’s Office. • Insitu gasification of coal and lignite – R&D Committee for the development of the UGC technology of the PSA’s Office. • Coal to oil conversion – suitable technologies should be established for the conversion of different types of Indian coals to oil through laboratory and pilot-scale studies. The studies can be undertaken by CSIR laboratories (such as the CFRI, NCL, IICT) in collaboration with coal and oil companies. • Coal bed methane – R&D on enhanced CBM recovery techniques in Indian conditions. • Carbon capture and storage (including climate change issues) – R&D on modelling and simulation of gas separation processes, studies of reactive membranes for gas separation processes, etc. Authors: PSA’s Office; Shri S. Chaudhuri, CMPDIL and Dr. Leena Srivastava, TERI.
Ultra Supercritical Technologies • Higher Efficiency leading to lesser coal burnt and lower pollution per MW generated. • About 10% reduction in coal consumption possible, resulting in prolonging life of domestic coal reserves. • Materials development to withstand high pressure, high temperature, oxidation, erosion and corrosion for steam generator tubes, main steam piping and high pressure turbine. • Development involving heat transfer, pressure drop, flow stability at ultra-supercritical conditions. Author: Shri S.K. Goyal, BHEL.
Development and Production of New Materials • Vision: • To set-up a world-class consortium for Energy Materials, with select facilities for the development of advanced materials for power generation. • Mission: • To develop advanced materials at lower cost • To provide sound scientific and technological base for the development of advanced materials that will permit boiler operation at steam temperatures of up to 760oC. • To enable domestic boiler, steam generator and turbine manufacturers to compete globally. • To lay the ground work for the development of an Indian Code for the approval of newly developed materials. • Approach: • Coherent synergy to be brought-in through networking among various institution like IGCAR, BHEL, BARC, IITs, HAL, DMRL, the MIDHANI, the CSIR, etc., in the second layer. Authors: Dr. Baldev Raj, IGCAR and Shri S.K. Goyal, BHEL
R&D in Bio-fuels • Present challenges for R&D in bio-fuel sector lie mainly in judicious plantations of energy crops and establishing the facilities for conversion into biofuels of appropriate specification. • Adequate data also needs to be generated that establish conclusively the tangible gains realizable in the transportation and power generation sector. • Co-production of fuel and by-products in integrated bio-refineries will improve the overall economy and competitiveness of biofuels and, therefore, coordination with potential user industries – of the by-products – is desirable. • It would also be important to set-up testing labs in different locations of the country for testing and certifying the quality of biofuels produced. Authors: Dr. Anand Patwardhan, TIFAC; Shri R.P. Verma, IOC; Dr. Leena Srivastava, TERI; Shri M.C. Nebhnani, NTPC and Shri A.K. Goel, PCRA Vetted by: Dr. Pushpito Ghosh, CSMCRI.
Hydrogen as a Source of Clean Energy • R&D to be done on all aspects of hydrogen energy, i.e. hydrogen production, its storage, its transportation and its delivery. • Keeping in view the importance of hydrogen as an altnerate fuel of the future for both the transport and the power generation sectors, it would be desirable to launch a National Mission on the development of Hydrogen Energy. • An amount of Rs. 350 crores is projected as the R&D budget in the eleventh five year plan for doing R&D in all areas of hydrogen energy, some of which are listed below: - • Clean Coal Gasification Technologies for Hydrogen Production. • Hydrogen Production through Biological Routes. • Hydrogen Production through Renewable Energy Routes. • Hydrogen Production through Nuclear thermo-chemical water splitting route. • Hydrogen Storage in Hydrides. • Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-structures. • Development of IC Engine for Hydrogen fuel. • Development of PEM and SOFC Fuel Cell Technologies. Authors: PSA’s Office, based on the inputs received during and after a brainstorming session that it had organized in New Delhi on the 11th of October, 2006 on “Hydrogen for Energy in India”. The contribution made by the MNRE is also acknowledged.
Energy Storage Systems • R&D for the development of high energy density lead-acid batteries. • R&D for the development of Nickel-Iron, Nickel-metal hydride, Lithium-ion, Zinc-air batteries. • R&D for the development of new form of energy storage systems such as ultracapacitors. • Setting-up of a Centre of Excellence on energy storage systems in the country. Author: Shri A.K. Shukla, CECRI.
Manufacture of Polysilicon for production of Single Crystals of Silicon • Single crystals of silicon are of national importance, having strategic and commercial implications. • Silicon today is as much our Energy Material as an electronic material • The industry is totally dependent on imports. However, because of the increasing demand worldwide, import is becoming difficult. It is, therefore, essential to take steps to remedy this situation. • The Working Group recommended the setting-up of a facility for the production of: • 2500 tonnes per annum (TPA) polysilicon, • Growth of silicon single crystals of diameters upto 8”, • Characterization of poly, single crystals and finished wafers. • The estimated cost of setting-up of such a facility would be about Rs. 1200 crores. Authors: PSA’s Office, based on the inputs received during the National Conference on Advances in Technologically Important Crystals (NC-ATIC), held in the Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, during October 12-14, 2006. The input received subsequently from Dr. S.C. Sabharwal, BARC, is also acknowledged.
Manufacture of LEDs • India, at present, is doing system level development (Solid State Lighting -SSL) with imported LEDs (chips/final LEDs). For e.g., the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) is producing SSL based traffic signal indicators. • The BEL is also interested in setting-up a facility to manufacture white LEDs in the country for which it has signed an MoU recently with M/s. CREE, USA. Under that MoU, M/s CREE will support the BEL in establishing packaging facilities for super bright white LEDs. They will also supply to the BEL LED chips with luminosity of 80-100 lumens/ watt. They will also assist the BEL in the manufacture of luminaires for home lighting and other applications. • An MoU has also been signed recently between NTPC and SITAR in this context. • Requirement of funds: Rs. 1000.00 crores. • The PSA’s Office has recently brought together a group of scientists drawn from the CEERI, the SITAR, the RRCAT, the IISc, the IIT Kharagpur and the Anna University for initiating R&D work to develop the next generation of LEDs in the country. Author: PSA’s Office (The material used from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED), is gratefully acknowledged).
Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) – Viable Alternate Propulsion Systems • The development of alternate propulsion technologies, especially hybrid electric vehicle technologies, is imperative for the advancement of energy conservation and environment-friendly applications. • Key R&D areas: • Different architectures and optimal configurations through modeling & simulation; • Electronic controls, energy storage and drives; • Complementary engine and transmission management systems; • Evolving protocols for safety and recyclability concerns. Authors: Shri S.N. Marathe, ARAI; Dr. G.K. Sharma, CIRT and Dr. Arun Jaura, Mahindra & Mahindra Limited.
Setting-up of the Expert Committee on Impacts of Climate Change The Government has constituted an Expert Committee on Impacts of Climate Change. The Terms of Reference of the Committee are: (a) To study the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on India (b) To identify the measures that we may have to take in the future in relation to addressing vulnerability to anthropogenic climate change impacts. (c) Any other item related to (a) & (b) above.
The major issues to be addressed • High-Resolution Climate Models • Mitigating Technologies • Adaptation Strategies