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SOLAR ENERGY. IN TURKEY. Sustainability through Eco Management and Audit Scheme. Sustainable Energy . What do we mean by sustainable energy? Sustainable energy is about using energy wisely and using energy generated from clean sources and clean technologies.
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SOLAR ENERGY IN TURKEY Sustainability through Eco Management and Audit Scheme
Sustainable Energy • What do we mean by sustainable energy? • Sustainable energy is about using energy wisely and using energy generated from clean sources and clean technologies. • Wise energy use is the first step to ensuring we have sustainable energy for present and future generations. • Being efficient with our energy will reduce our household and business energy bills, reduce the amount of energy we need to produce in the first place and cut energy related greenhouse pollution. • So sustainable energy is not just about using renewable energy, perhaps its not even about renewable energy as we explain further below, its about using energy wisely and introducing energy efficiency measures.
Renewable energy effectively uses natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro hydro, biomass and biofuels for transportation. • Sustainable energy sources are most often regarded as including all renewable sources, such as solar power, wind power, wave power, geothermal power, tidal power and others. TURKEY’S SOLAR ENERGY MAP
Solar Energy • Solar energy is light and heat energy from the sun. Solar cells convert sunlight into electrical energy. Thermal collectors convert sunlight into heat energy. Solar technologies are used in watches, calculators, water pumps, space satellites, for heating water, and supplying clean electricity to the power grid. There is enough solar radiation striking the surface of the earth to provide all of our energy needs.
There are two main ways of using solar energy to produce electricity. These are through the use of solar cells and solar thermal technology. Using solar technologies to generate electricity is, at present, more expensive than using coal-fired power stations, but it produces much less pollution. • Solar cells are photovoltaic cells that turn light into electricity. Solar cells are used in three main ways. They are used in small electrical items, like calculators, and for remote area power supplies, like telephones and space satellites. They are also used on a larger scale to supply electricity through energy authorities such as energex and Ergon.
TURKEY is in an ideal position to develop and use solar energy. Some areas in SOUTH and WESTERN parts are among the best sites in Turkey to develop large scale solar electric generating plants. • It makes sense then to be cautious and conserve non-renewable fuels for use by future generations and to control the global greenhouse effect. So, we should try to decrease energy use, and to change to renewable sources of energy.
Wise energy use will require people to value certain things and act in certain ways. • We must understand ecological processes and the interconnections in nature. • We must 'think globally but act locally' as responsible energy users. • We need to take the long-term view and think about the consequences of what we do. • We must look for alternative ways to meet human needs: sustainable ways. • We must not forget the connections between the environmental, social and economic factors involved in development.
The advantages of solar energy • Solar energy has the following advantages over conventional energy: • The energy from the sun is virtually free after the initial cost has been recovered. • Depending on the utilization of energy, paybacks can be very short when compared to the cost of common energy sources used. • Solar and other renewable energy systems can be stand-alone; thereby not requiring connection to a power or natural gas grid. • The sun provides a virtually unlimited supply of solar energy. • The use of solar energy displaces conventional energy; which usually results in a proportional decrease in green house gas emissions. • The use of solar energy is an untapped market.
Turkey has a large economy and, thus, it expects a very large growth in energy demand. Today, Turkey's economy is mainly dependent on oil, natural gas, and electricity. On the other hand, Turkey's energy production meets nearly 35% of its total primary energy consumption. Turkey is an energy importing country. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. Turkey has about 1% of the total world hydroelectric potential and its significant potential for geothermal power production is ranked seventh in the world. This paper presents the energy situation and potential of the renewable energy sources in Turkey.
Solar energy is one of the most promising sources because of the Turkey’s climate.It has been calculated that Turkey receives sunlight equivalent to roughly 11 thousand times the amount of electricity generated in Turkey in 1996. Turkey has an average 2640 hours of sunshine per annum and the average solar flux exceeds 5.8 GJ/m2 annually. Clearly, both photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems could be used to great effect. Use of solar thermal is already widespread. In 1995 it was calculated that solar thermal generated 52,000 tonnes-of-oil-equivalent of heat. Indications suggest that this could increase six-fold in the next 15 years. The potential for PV is virtually unlimited, and the price for these systems is declining rapidly.
Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage, and a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent use. The systems may be used to heat water for home or business use, for swimming pools, or as an energy input for space heating and cooling and industrial applications. In many climates, a solar heating system can provide a very high percentage (50% to 75%) of domestic hot water energy. In many northern European countries, combined hot water and space heating systems (solar combisystems) are used to provide 15 to 25% of home heating energy.
In order to heat water using solar energy, a collector is fastened to the roof of a building, or on a wall facing the sun. In some cases, the collector may be free-standing. The working fluid is either pumped (active system) or driven by natural convection (passive system) through it. The collector could be made of a simple glass topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal attached to copper pipes and painted black, or a set of metal tubes surrounded by an evacuated (near vacuum) glass cylinder. In some cases, before the solar energy is absorbed, a parabolic mirror is used to concentrate sunlight on the tube.
A simple water heating system would pump cold water out to a collector to be heated, the heated water flows back to a collection tank. This type of collector can provide enough hot water for an entire family. Heat is stored in a hot water tank. The volume of this tank will be larger with solar heating systems in order to allow for bad weather, and because the optimum final temperature for the absorber is lower than a typical immersion or combustion heate