The Cold War 1945-1990 Reshaped the world order of the twentieth century and created a rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet union and their allies that lasted for 40 years
EdtechteacherBest of History Websites • http://www.besthistorysites.net/index.php/american-history/1900/cold-war-era
What do I need to know and understand about the Cold War? (State Objective 2.3d) • 1. What are the origins of the Cold War? Why and when did it begin? • 2. Which countries were allies of the U.S.? • 3. Which countries were allies of the Soviet Union? (Russia) • 4. Compare the U.S. to the Soviet Union. How were they different in ideology? What type of governments and economic systems did each have? What type of individual rights? • 5. What role did technology play in the Cold War?
What were the major differences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in 1945? United States Soviet Union • Capitalist • Democracy • Individual Freedom and rights • Help Germany recover • Freedom the press and speech • Promote democracy around the world • Communist • Dictatorship • Limited human rights • Make Germany pay • Censorship and intimidation • Spread communism around the world
Problems between the U.S. and the Soviet Union began before WWII was over: • 1. U.S. and Soviet Union had very different ideas about what the postwar world organization • 2. The U.S., Great Britain and Soviet Union disagreed over how to deal with Germany and Poland • 3. Soviet Communism and American democratic capitalism were two entirely different belief systems • 4. U.S. and Britain had opposed the Russian Revolution of 1917 • 5. Stalin blamed Britain and U.S. for Soviet losses in WWII when they refused to open a second front. • 6. U.S. and Britain had not forgotten that Stalin signed non aggression pact with Germany and only joined the Allies when Germany launched an attack on the Soviet Union.
What decisions were made at the Yalta Conference? • Near the end of WWII, the U.S., Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed on plans for new international organizations to settle disputes in the future: 1.The United Nations 2.National Security Council • Fifty nations met in San Francisco in 1945 to sign the United Nations Charter to ensure world peace. • But there were still many problems that were harder to solve. They decided to divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones after the war.
Franklin Roosevelt died, Harry Truman became president (1945) • April 12, 1945 FDR dies in Warm Springs, Georgia • Harry Truman takes office. • Truman and many others believed Stalin and the Soviets were untrustworthy and politically aggressive • “The Buck Stops Here”
What was the Potsdam Conference? • In the summer of 1945, President Harry Truman met with Soviet and British to decide how to deal with war ravaged Europe and Germany. • Truman reminded Stalin of his promise to allow democratic elections in Eastern European countries. • Stalin did not keep this promise and more countries fell under Communist control. • The first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan as Truman was on his way back to the states from Potsdam.
Video: US Soviet History and Potsdam Conference (10:00) • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=HpYCplyBknI&name=THE+COLD+WAR+-+PART+1%3A+From+World+War+to+Cold+War&uploadUsername=mediarichlearning&hitCount=482812
What was the “Iron Curtain”? • In 1946 Stalin made a speech and said that war between Communist and capitalist nations was inevitable. • A month later, Winston Churchill made a speech and warned that “an iron curtain” divided Europe. He was referring to the divide between free and Communist nations.
Who was George Kennan? What was the long telegram? 1946 • In a “long telegram,”American diplomat George Kennan suggested that the U.S. should “contain”Soviet Communist expansion—keep it from spreading to other parts of the world.
David Shi on Kennan, Containment, and the Cold War • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=zcEiP6-AKzU&name=David+Shi+on+George+Kennan%2C+containment%2C+and+the+Cold+War&uploadUsername=nortonhistory&hitCount=165
What was the Truman Doctrine? (1947) • Based on George Kennan’s idea of containment of communism. • Truman offered $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey for armed forces • Declared the U.S. had a responsibility to “Support free peoples who are resisting subjugation…” • *** This policy of aid and containment formed the basis of American foreign policy for 40 years.
What was the Marshall Plan? (1947) • June 1947, Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, announced a plan to send economic aid to devastated Western Europe. • U.S. sent $12 billion in three years to Europe. Russia refused aid, but the rest of Europe experienced remarkable economic recovery.
Marshall Plan • A young boy in Austria is the embraces a new pair of shoes provided by the Marshall Plan.
Why Did the U.S. send billions of dollars to rebuild Europe after WWII? (Marshall Plan) • 1. There was real concern for the suffering of Europeans after the war • 2. To build up the European economy and avoid the economic depression that came after WWII • 3. To build a market for U.S. goods—TRADE • 4. MOST IMPORTANTLY—to keep the weak European nations from falling under Communist control.
What were the signs that the U.S. was determined to stop the spread of communism? (containment) • 1. U.S. maintained wartime military power • 2. Draft registration was kept in place • 3. Doubled up efforts to build a hydrogen bomb (nuclear weapons program) • 4. ****National Security Act of 1947….. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Reorganized the military Gave the President more power to act
Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan (4:00) • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=Xyoviiavusk&name=%232+++Truman+Doctrine+and+Marshall+Plan&uploadUsername=apeuromazzie&hitCount=9282
WWII Ends and Cold War Begins (4:30) • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=m1V8jkedZEY&name=World+War+2+Ends+and+The+Cold+War+Begins+--+Part+5+of+21&uploadUsername=thepoliticallion&hitCount=394
From World War to Cold War (10:00) • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=HpYCplyBknI&name=THE+COLD+WAR+-+PART+1%3A+From+World+War+to+Cold+War&uploadUsername=mediarichlearning&hitCount=481898
What was the Berlin Crisis and Berlin Airlift? (1948-1949) • Problem: In 1948 the Soviets tried to take control of all of Berlin. Stalin closed all highway and rail routes into West Berlin. The U.S., France, and Great Britain could not get supplies to their part of the city and over 2,000,000 people were going to run out of food. • Solution: Instead of armed conflict, the Americans and the British flew tons supplies into the city for almost a year. This act was known as the Berlin Airlift. The Soviets backed down.
Berlin Airlift 60 years later • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=detQUU_jw7c&name=Berlin+Airlift+Remembered+After+60+Years&uploadUsername=voavideo&hitCount=8777
Berlin Airlift (5:00) • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=6dN6IM5PqYo&name=Berlin+Blockade+and+Airlift+1948+%285m%29&uploadUsername=mrkhistory&hitCount=7604
Why was 1949 a critical year in U.S. and world history? • NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed • Soviets tested their first atomic bomb • China fell to the Communists • National Security Council Report–NSC-68 expanded the policy of containment---later leads to U.S. military action in Korea and Vietnam
What is NATO? • NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization In 1949, 12Western nations formed NATO to combat Communist aggression. **This was the FIRST time the U.S. had entered into a military alliance with other nations during peacetime. An attack on one was considered an attack on all. It is an organization of collective defense. • Soviet Union countered with Warsaw Pact (1955) A military alliance of communist nations and their allies • NATO is active and still growing today.