World War II The War to end all Wars ENTER MAIN MENU
Learning Objectives The students will be able to identify the causes and results of World War II. The students will be able to analyze, interpret and reflect on primary and secondary documents. The students will be able to understand the impact that World War II had on European and world society. The students will be able organize information from their prior knowledge to create a connection of the previous unit (World War I) to World War II. Students will be able to analyze the significance of key events and turning points of World War II.
MAIN MENU UNIT 1 TUTORIAL UNIT 2 WORLD WAR II UNIT 3 TEST ON WORLD WAR II CREDIT
TUTORIAL ON WORLD WAR II Unit 1 MAIN MENU Tutorial video
Brief Tutorial • Watch the introduction video on World war II PLAY WORLD WAR II VIDEO • After you watch the video go back to the main menu slide and enter the Unit 2 World War II section. MAIN MENU
WORLD WAR II Unit 2 World War II was the largest global conflict in history. The war claimed the lives of more than 60 million people and has shaped international affairs to this day. The war in Asia between Japan and China began in 1937, when Japan invaded the country. The shooting war in Europe began in September, 1939, when Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, invaded Poland. The war in Europe concluded on May 7, 1945, when Germany surrendered. At that point, Hitler had committed suicide and Benito Mussolini was hanged in Italy. The war in Asia ended on August 15, 1945 when Japan surrendered after The United States of America dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ENTER MAIN TOPICS AREA MAIN MENU
WORLD WAR IITEST Unit 3 START TEST MAIN MENU
Complete the following ten multiple choice questions by selecting the best answer for each question. Before You begin this test make sure you have gone through Unit 1 and 2 in the other sections of this learning program. Begin Test on World War II Go Back to Main Menu
Question 1 Which was a characteristic of Germany under Adolf Hitler and Italy under Benito Mussolini? • an official foreign policy of isolationism • governmental control of the media • public ownership of business and industry • the absence of a written constitution
Wrong answer!!!!!! Go back to question
Your Answer is correct!!!!!One of the tactics used by Fascist governments was to have total control of a life in society including the media and education. Go to next question
Question 2 World War II is often considered to be a turning point in history because • the League of nations demonstrated that an international organization could maintain world peace • the war brought an end to dictatorships as a form of government • European domination of the world began to weaken as nationalism in colonies increased • religious and ethnic differences were no longer a source of conflict between nations
Your Answer is correct!!!!!World War II brought and end to Fascist totalitarian dictatorships in Italy and Germany. Go to next question
Question 3 Which is one major reason the Holocaust is considered a unique event in modern European history? • Jews of Europe have seldom been victims of persecution. • Civilians rarely were killed during air raids on Great Britain. • Adolf Hitler concealed his anti-Jewish feelings until after he came to power. • The genocide was planned in great detail and required the cooperation of many people.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!The Holocaust was a extremely extensive system put into effect by Nazi Germany. It took a lot of planning and millions of people working together to make it happen. That is why it is considered to be a unique and probably the worst event in world history. Go to next question
Question 4 In the 1930's and 1940's, fascist regimes in Japan, Germany, and Italy were similar in that each emphasized 1. empathy toward African nations.2. the protection of human rights3. imperialism as a foreign policy.4. support for free expression.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!One of the goals of fascist countries was to expand their territorial domination. Being aggressive towards imperializing other countries was a tactic commonly used. Go to next question
Question 5 During the 1930's, the Nazi (National Socialist) Party received support from the German people because it promised to 1. abide by the Versailles Treaty.2. improve economic conditions in Germany.3 promote policies that insured ethnic equality.4. utilize international organizations to solve Germany's problems.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!One of the major reasons why Hitler gained so much support was because of hard economic and political conditions taking place in Germany in the 1920’s and 1930’s. The people looked to the Nazi Party for help in resolving their problems. Go to next question
Question 6 The harsh conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I helped lay the foundation for the 1. rise of fascism in Germany.2. uprisings during the French Revolution.3. division of Korea along the 38th parallel.4. Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!The harsh conditions imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles is the reason for a sentiment of revenge that rose within the German people after World War I. Go to next question
Question 7 During World War II, which event occurred last? • German invasion of Poland. • Russian defense of Stalingrad. • United States bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. • Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!The War officially ended with the United States dropping two atomic bombs on Japan in August of 1945. Go to next question
Question 8 During World War II, the Allied invasion of France on D-Day (June 6, 1944) was significant because it • demonstrated the power of the atomic bomb. • resulted in a successful German revolt against Hitler and the Nazi Party. • led to the immediate surrender of German and Italian forces. • forced Germans to fight a two-front war.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!By the allies taking control of France it made Germany have to fight on two sides. England and the United States on the Western Front and the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. This served to be costly to Hitler and finally made him lose the war. Go to next question
Question 9 In Europe during the 1930's, several national leaders, in order to preserve peace at any cost, agreed to the demands of an aggressor. This policy is referred to as • militarism • Reparation • nonalignment • appeasement
Your Answer is correct!!!!!Appeasement was the policy used by England and France after World War I to prevent any war from happening again.World War II proved that appeasement did not work with aggressor countries of Germany and Italy. Go to next question
Question 10 • One reason the Fascist governments of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler came to power in Italy and Germany was that these nations • were threatened by the United States. • supported civil liberties for all. • failed to join the League of Nations. • faced economic and political difficulties.
Your Answer is correct!!!!!The global economic hardships caused by the Great Depression and the harsh conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles served to be major reasons as to why so many people accepted the fascist regimes of the 1930’s. You are done!!!!!!! Go to Final Slide
MAIN TOPICS TWO FRONT WAR DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES DATES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES CAUSES Unit 2c TWO FRONT WAR TWO FRONT WAR TWO FRONT WAR TWO FRONT WAR TWO FRONT WAR TWO FRONT WAR Unit 2a Unit 2b Unit 2d KEY EVENTS KEY EVENTS KEY EVENTS KEY EVENTS KEY EVENTS KEY EVENTS KEY EVENTS RESULTS RESULTS RESULTS RESULTS RESULTS RESULTS RESULTS Unit 2e MAINMENU
World War IIDATES BEGINNING END KEYBATTLES MAIN TOPICS
BEGINNING • 1940 • April: Norway and Denmark invaded by Germany • May 10: Germany invades (Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium) • May 14: Luxembourg and Netherlands fall • May 28: Belgium surrenders • May: British/French forces trapped in Belgium • May: USSR conquers Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia • June 4:British and French troops evacuated to Great Britain at Dunkirk, France • June 10: Italy declares war on UK and France • June 14: Paris falls to Nazis • Sept: London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and other British cities bombed by Nazis • Sept: Italian forces in Libya attack British in Egypt • Sept 22: Japanese attack French Indochina • Sept: Japan joins Axis • Oct 28: Italy invades Greece • Nov 20: Hungary joins the Axis • Nov 23: Romania joins the Axis • Dec 8: British attack Italian forces in Egypt • Dec: German U-Boats sink US/Canadian convoys to Britain • 1939 • Sept 1: Germany invades Poland in an agreement with the Soviet Union • Sept 3: UK and France declare war on Germany • Sept 10: Canada declares war on Germany • Sept 27: Poland falls • Nov 30: U.S.S.R invades Finland DATES
KEY BATTLES 1941 1942 1943 1944 MAIN TOPICS
1941 • Jan 15: British forces invade Ethiopia • Jan: Greek troops push Italian forces into Albania • March 1: Bulgaria joins the Axis • April 6: German forces invade Greece and Yugoslavia, • April 13: Japan signs nonaggression pact with the USSR • end of April: Greece completely occupied by Axis • May: Britain's Royal Navy destroys German battleship Bismark • June 22: Germany invades Soviet Union • July 7: US troops land in Iceland • Aug 14: Atlantic Charter announced • Sept: German forces capture Kiev, USSR • Dec: Soviet troops repulse German advance on Moscow • Dec 7: Japanese Imperial Fleet bombs US Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor • Dec 8: The United States of America declares war on the Empire of Japan • Dec 9: China declares war on the Axis • Dec 10: Japanese capture Guam • Dec 11: Germany and Italy declare war on US • Dec 11: United States declares war on Germany and Italy • Dec 23:Wake Island falls to Japanese • Dec 25: Hong Kong captured by Japanese NEXT
1942 • Jan 2: Manila, Philippines, falls to the Japanese • Jan 11: Japanese land in The Netherlands Indies • Feb 1: US ships raid Marshal and Gilbert Islands • Feb 15: Singapore surrenders to Japanese • Feb 27: Allies lose Battle of the Java Sea to Japan • March 7: Netherlands Indies occupied by Japanese • April 9: Bataan surrendered to the Japanese • April 18: US carrier aircraft bomb Tokyo • May 4-8: Allies win the Battle of the Coral Sea • May 6: Japanese occupy Corregidor • June 4-6: Battle of Midway ends Japanese eastward expansion • June 21: German troops seize Tobruk, North Africa • July 2: British defeat Germans at El Alamein • Aug 7: United States Marines land on Guadalcanal • Nov 7: 500,000 Allied troops massed against Axis in Africa • Nov 11: Vichy French resistance in Africa ended • Nov 12: British troops recapture Tobruk • Nov 19: Soviets counterattack at Stalingrad • Nov 27: French scuttle their fleet at Toulon NEXT
1943 • Jan: German Field Marshall Von Paulus surrenders to the Soviets • Jan: German troops at Stalingrad surrender after 3 months of extremely intense fighting • Jan 31: Allies win Battle of the Bismark Sea • Feb 2: Japanese troops retreat across the Yangtze River • March 2-5: Tunis and Bizerte fall to the Allies • March 13: Organized Axis resistance in Africa ends • May 7: Organized Japanese resistance in Attu ends • May 12: Allies invade Sicily • May 30: Allies land on Italian mainland • July 10: Italy signs secret armistice with Allies • Sept 3: Allies capture Finschhafen • Sept 3: Italy declares war on Germany • Oct 2: US troops land on Bougainville Island • Nov 1: Soviets retake Kiev • Nov 6: US Marines invade Tarawa and Makin • Nov 20: Allied Leaders confer in Cairo, Egypt • Nov 22: Allies march into Rome, Italy NEXT
1944 • Jan 27: Soviets break the siege of Leningrad • Jan 31: US troops attack Kwajalein Atoll • Feb 17: United States forces raid Truk Island • Feb 29: Allied soldiers land in the Admiralties • March 19: Hungary conquered by Germany • March 22: Japanese troops invade India • April 22: Allied forces land at Hollandia • June 6: Allies invade [Normandy, France • June 13: First German V-I guided missile falls on London • June 15: United States Marines invade Saipan Island • June 15: USAF B-29s raid Japan • June 19-20: USN defeats Japanese Fleet in Battle of the Philippine Sea • July 21: US forces land on Guam Island • July 25: Allies break out of Normandy • Aug 15: Allies retake Philippines from Japan • Aug 15: Allies invade southern France, encountering little German resistance • Aug 25: Romania declares war on Germany • Sept 9: Bulgaria declares war on Germany • Sept 10: Finland signs armistice with U.S.S.R • Sept 15: US Marines invade Peleiu Island • Oct 20: US Army lands on Leyte • Oct 26: US Pacific Fleet defeats Japanese Fleet in Battle for Leyte Gulf • Dec 16: Nazis counterattack at Bulge, Belgium • Dec 27: Allies defeat Germans at the Battle of the Bulge NEXT
END Jan 9: Allied troops invade Luzon, Philippines Jan 22: Allies reopen a land route to China Jan 11: Red Army enters Warsaw, Poland Jan 21: Hungary declares war on Germany Feb 13: Soviet forces occupy Budapest, Hungary Feb 19: US Marines storm Iwo Jima Island April 1: US troops land on Okinawa Island April 13:Vienna captured by Red Army April 22: Soviets reach suburbs of Berlin April 25: US and Soviet forces meet at Torgau May 2: German troops in Italy surrender May 2: Berlin surrenders to Soviet Army May 7: Germany surrenders to the Allies July 26: Allies issue the Potsdam Declaration Aug 6: United States bomber, Enola Gay, drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan Aug 9: US bomber, Bock's Car, drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan Aug 10: Japanese government opens up negotiations for peace Aug 14: Japan surrenders to Allies Sept 2: Japanese officials sign terms of surrender on US battleship Missouri Sept 8: Japanese forces in China surrender Sept 12: Japanese forces in southeast Asia surrender MAIN TOPICS
CAUSES TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1 AGGRESSION VS. APPEASEMENT 3 Rise Of Fascism 2 ALLIANCES 4 MAIN TOPICS MAIN TOPICS
TREATY OF VERSAILLES • The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, one of the events that triggered the start of the war. • The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. • Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial, required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war and, under the terms of articles 231-248 (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. • The result of these competing and sometimes incompatible goals among the victors was compromise that left none satisfied: Germany was not pacified, conciliated nor permanently weakened. This would prove to be a factor leading to later conflicts, notably and directly the Second World War CAUSES
The policy of appeasement, used intensely by Great Britain and France in the 1930s, was ultimately a bid to reach a peaceful understanding with Germany. On September 29, 1938, the Munich Pact, which allowed for the cession of four specific districts of the Sudetenland to Germany, was signed. AGRESSION See notes APPEASEMENT See Notes VS. The act of aggression, used continuously by Germany in the 1930’s, was the use of its military force to invade other territories. This tactic along with the resistance of war by other countries allowed Germany to gain power, size and military might. CAUSES
AGRESSION Soon after rising to power in Germany Hitler embarks on an ambitious plan to rebuild Germany’s armed forces. Submarines, tanks, and military aircraft were prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles. The German army was not to exceed 100.000 men. • 1933 Germany begins to rearm • Italy invades Ethiopia 1935 • Germany invades Rhineland 1936 • Japan invades china 1937. • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis • Germany Annexed Austria 1938 • Munich conference Sept 1938 • Germany annexed Czechoslovakia • Invasion of Poland 1939 • September 1939 - France and Great Britain declare war on Germany Previous slide
APPEASEMENT • U.S Neutrality Acts 1930s • Pacifism = Opposition to war • Munich conference • “Peace for our time” • “Neville Chamberlain” In 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, along with representatives from France and Italy, signed the Munich Pact with German leader Adolf Hitler. The pact acceded to Hitler’s demands for cession of the Sudetenland, a German-speaking region of Czechoslovakia, to Germany. Chamberlain announced afterward that there would be “peace in our time,” but the agreement averted war only temporarily. For many western nations the agreement became a symbol of appeasement. Previous slide
RISE OF FASCISM SEE NOTES CAUSES
Rise of Fascism in Europe Fascism is an authoritarian form of government with a strong sense of nationalism that values the state over the individuals. Fascist governments forbid and suppress criticism and opposition to the government. Italy Germany • Reasons why fascism rose in Italy • 1. Discontent with the Italian government after the First World War because of its failures in both foreign and domestic affairs • Italians desired a strong government which could impose law and order in the country • Economic and political crisis in society • Mussolini’s control of Italy • Secret Police • Youth Organization and education • Censoring the mass media • Total control of the economic, political and social life of the Italian people • Reasons why Nazism rose in Germany • The Great Depression of 1929created an economic crisis in Germany • The Germans resented the Treaty of Versailles • The Nazi program promised everything to everybody • Hitler was a very successful leader • Hitler’s rule of Germany • Control of mass media. • Control of education • Crushing of discontent opponents • Persecution of the Jews CAUSES
ALLIANCES Axis Powers In 1940, during World War II, the military alliance of Italy and Germany—the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis—was extended to include Japan and became the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. The three countries and their allies, known collectively as the Axis Powers, fought against the Allied Powers in the war. Here, Japanese and Italian emissaries accompany German dictator Adolf Hitler. Versus Allied Powers The Allied Powers is the name given to the alliance of countries in opposition to the Axis Powers in World War II. The United States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, India, the Soviet Union, Canada, and Greece are some of the countries that were part of the Allied Powers. CAUSES
TWO FRONT WAR WAR IN EUROPE WAR IN THE PACIFIC MAIN TOPICS
KEY EVENTS INVASION OF POLAND ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR THE HOLOCAUST D-DAY THE ATOMIC BOMB MAIN TOPICS
INVASION OF POLAND One week prior to the invasion of Poland, Adolf Hitler gathered his generals together at his home high in the Bavarian Alps. There he gave them a chilling speech in which he gave forewarning of his ambitions in the upcoming invasion of Poland. "Our strength is our quickness and our brutality. Genghis Khan had millions of women and children hunted down and killed, deliberately and with a gay heart. History sees in him only the great founder of States. What the weak Western European civilization alleges about me, does not matter. I have given the order—and will have everyone shot who utters but one word of criticism—that the aim of this war does not consist in reaching certain geographical lines, but in the enemies' physical elimination. Thus, for the time being only in the east, I put ready my Death's Head units, with the order to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of the Polish race or language. Only thus will we gain the living space that we need. Who still talks nowadays of the extermination of the Armenians?" KEY EVENTS