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Welcome. Animal Cloning. Hariom Yadav 1 , Shalini Jain 1 and Mukesh Yadav 2 1 Animal Biochemistry Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana, INDIA 2 SOS in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474011, M.P., INDIA

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  1. Welcome Dr. Hariom Yadav

  2. Animal Cloning Hariom Yadav1, Shalini Jain1 and Mukesh Yadav2 1Animal Biochemistry Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana, INDIA 2SOS in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474011, M.P., INDIA Corresponding author: Email: yadavhariom@gmail.com Dr. Hariom Yadav

  3. Cloning Clone is a group of genetically identical cells Clone is also an organism which is genetically an exact replica of another organism. Cloning is to duplicate a cell or an organism, usually asexually, which is genetically an exact replica of the other cell or organism. Dr. Hariom Yadav

  4. History of cloning • 1962 - John Gurdon claims to have cloned frogs from adult cells. • 1963 - J.B.S. Haldane coins the term 'clone.' • 1966 - Establishment of the complete genetic code. • 1967 - Enzyme DNA ligase isolated. • 1969 - Shapiero and Beckwith isolate the first gene. • 1970 - First restriction enzyme isolated. • 1972 - Paul Berg creates the first recombinant DNA molecules. • 1973 - Cohen and Boyer create first recombinant DNA organisms. • 1977 - Karl Illmensee claims to have created mice with only one parent. • 1979 - Karl Illmensee makes claim to have cloned three mice. • 1983 - Kary B. Mullis develops the polymerase chain reaction technique • for rapid DNA synthesis. • 1983 - Solter and McGrath fuse a mouse embryo cell with an egg without a • nucleus, but fail to clone using their technique. • 1984 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells Dr. Hariom Yadav

  5. Contd…… 1985 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells. Steen Willadsen joins Grenad Genetics to commercially clone cattle. 1986 - Steen Willadsen clones cattle from differentiated cells. 1986 - First, Prather, and Eyestone clone a cow from embryo cells. 1990 - Human Genome Project begins 1996 - Dolly, the first animal cloned from adult cells, born. 1997 - President Bill Clinton proposes a five year moratorium on cloning. 1997 - Richard Seed announces his plans to clone a human. 1997 - Wilmut and Campbell create Polly, a cloned sheep with an inserted human gene. 1998 - Teruhiko Wakayama creates three generations of genetically identical cloned mice. Dr. Hariom Yadav

  6. Why we want to do cloning Researchers hope that these techniques can be used in researching and treating human diseases and genetically altering animals for the production of human transplant organs. Dr. Hariom Yadav

  7. Steps in Cloning Step 1: Take any cell from your body, from the skin, for example. Step 2: Take an egg cell (ovum), from the ovary of any woman. Step 3: Take the nucleus out of the egg cell. Step 4: Put together the cell of your skin and the egg without nucleus. It will start to multiply forming a microspic ball of many identical cells. Step 5: In about 6 days place it in the uterus of the woman. Step 6: In 9 months a baby will be born just like you, an identical twin of you… without any genetic characteristics of the woman who gave the ovule and provided the uterus, and gave birth to your twin. Dr. Hariom Yadav

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  14. What is Basic principle of cloning Dr. Hariom Yadav

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  16. Purpose full cloning Dr. Hariom Yadav

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  18. Pros and Cons of Cloning • PROS: • Produce animals with desirable traits. • Increase the efficiency of the livestock production. • Offset losses of among endangered species populations. • Enable better research for finding cures to many diseases. • Provide children for parents who would like a child but can't have one for various reasons. • Provide parents with an opportunity to clone a child who has died. • CONS: • Decline in genetic diversity. • Taking nature into our own hands. • Religious and moral reasons. • Physical problems, such as birth defects. • Possibility of mental and emotional problems of the clone. Dr. Hariom Yadav

  19. Applications of Animal Cloning Animals as drug producers: Gene farming Animal models: Models for human diseases Breeding endogenic body tissue: Transplantation Xenotransplantation: Animal organs → Human Livestock breeding and agriculture Transgenic clones Dr. Hariom Yadav

  20. Thanks Dr. Hariom Yadav

  21. Ethics for Animal Cloning Dr. Hariom Yadav

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