886 b. c. till 392 a. d. OLYMPIC GAMES OF ANCIENT GREECE • www.portalplanetasedna.com.ar/juegos_olimpicos.htm
Olympic Games of ancient Greece • They date back to some 3000 years ago, in Greece, when sport competitions were organized. They were a mixture of sport, culture and religion. Olympia was one of the cities where these games took place, hence the modern name, Olimpiads. • In Greece the army had an important role, they were almost all the time at war. The practice of physical exercise was very important for that reason. This made very easy to create the games. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/kids/2004/08/olympics.html
Games Place Gods Piticos Delfos Apolo (God of the light and mind) Nemeos Nemea Heracles (God of the strengh) Itmicos Corinto Poseidon(God of the sea) MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGIN • There are some theories over this origin, one of them is that Zeus was who created the olimpiads to celebrate his victory over the Titans. This is the religious conection with the cult to the god Zeus in the games at Olimpia (king of Gods). • In other games the cults are to different Gods. • www.umich.edu/~iinet/iisite/outreach/Greece.htm
POSSIBLE REAL ORIGIN • In the X and IX b.c. there were some summer games that peasants celebrated every four years. • In 884 b.c.three cities (Elis, Sparta and Pisa) who agreed a peace treaty to celebrate the games. At that time, both athletes and pilgrims were untouchable. That peace was called olimpic peace or Ekecheiria. • In 776 b.c. we have the first news of an olympic winners’ list. The first one was called r Koribos from Elide www.osmosis.com.au/broadcast/olympia_01.htm
PARTICIPATION AT THE OLYMPIC GAMES • At first only the nobles could participate. Later, everybody could take part. • You had to be 20 to participate. • First they wore a kind of tunic; afterwards their naked body was their only garment. • Every city chose their representatives, who spent six months training at Elis, a city near Olimpia. There they chose the athletes who competed at the games.
The selection was made by their good physical proportions and techniques (beauty of gestures) because Greek culture was not interested in records but beauty and plasticity in movements. • Something has to be clear: they did not compete just to win but for their city and family honour. Winners were revered for life and cheaters had their family names stuck at the city entrance to discredit that surname.
Women at the Olympic games • Women could not watch, under death penalty, the games. So, some special games were created in honour of Hera, a goddess. They ran around the stadium, but a shorter run than men • There is only one exception, the priestess of goddess Demeter, this was very demanded by the nobles of the time. • Only virgin women could take part and they did it barefooted, their hair loose and a short skirt above their knees. • In the year 396 a.d. the first woman took part in men’s games, she was the princess Kiniska from Sparta riding a horse. http://www.fmujeresprogresistas.org/Documentos/Mujer%20y%20Deporte.%20Retos%20para%20beijing%202008.pdf
PRUEBAS OLIMPICAS • JUMP • JAVALIN HURLING • DISC HURLING • RUNNING( un estadio= 192,27 m, dos estadios, 24estadios) • WRESTLING (lucha, pugilato, pancracio) • HORSE TESTCarrera decarros( bigas y cuadrigas) Equitación (muchasmodalidades). www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ancientgreece/classics/olympics/flashmovie.shtml
OLYMPIC PROGRAMME 472 b.c. • There were not five days at first; they began with one day run. • 1st day : opening act with a religious character to present the athletes to the public. • 2nd day: devoted to the Gods, with a solemn night procession and a banquet for the athletes. • 3rd day: pentathlon and horse riding. • 4th day: athletics, boxing, wrestling and pankratio. • 5th day: proclamation of the winner, presenting prizes, religious act and a banquet of the organizers and athletes. • rashomon.blogspot.com/2004/08/olympics.html
List of emblems of the Ancient and new Olympic games • The Olympic ceremony: The athletes’ parade, remembering the walk from Elis to Olympia,accompanied by the organizers of the games. • Flag: It is meant to remember the olympic peace with nowadays symbol of the five continents linked in the olympic rings. • Fire: The offerings to the God Zeus, hence the Olympic torch. • Oath: Like the one the athletes made with the organizers in front of the statue of the God Zeus. • Trophies: The olive crown (gathered by a child in the holy olive trees of Olympia) http://www.madridolimpico.net/historia-de-los-juegos-olimpicos/juegos-olimpicos-modernos.php