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The Crusades. Success, Failure, Success. Crusades of the 11 th and 12 th. Strengthened the papal claim to leadership of Christian society The Christian warrior class as a new nobility New prestige in the knightly class

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the crusades

The Crusades

Success, Failure, Success

crusades of the 11 th and 12 th
Crusades of the 11th and 12th
  • Strengthened the papal claim to leadership of Christian society
  • The Christian warrior class as a new nobility
    • New prestige in the knightly class
  • According to Perry they represent an outpouring of Christian Zeal and an attempt by the papacy to regain preeminence
  • These were also a sign of vitality, strength, and self confidence in western Europe.
leading up to the crusades
Leading up to the Crusades
  • Pilgrimages to the holy land
  • Mid 11th Seljuk Turks, from central Asia took control over most of middle east
  • 1085 they captured Jerusalem
  • Byzantium appealed for help from the west
  • The West had been fairly successful prior to this
    • In 11th Pisa and Genoa had driven Muslims out of Sardinia; then they attacked Tunis wiping out the base for Muslim pirates and forcing the emir to free Christian captives and to trade with Italy; in 1091 Normans drove them out of Sicily and took southern Italy from Byzantium
motives for the crusaders
Motives for the Crusaders
  • Spiritual reasons
    • Christian Obligation
    • Plenary Indulgences
  • Personal Reasons
    • Younger sons had a chance to gain territory
    • There was much wealth to be gained
    • Personal Glory
    • Dreams of Adventure
  • Papal Reasons
    • Might extend his influence over the east which was lost after the Schism of 1054
1 st crusade 1096 1099
1st Crusade 1096-1099
  • 1091 Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus I requested aid from Pope Urban II
    • Protection from the Turks
    • Protection for pilgrims
  • 1095 – Council of Clermont – Urban speaks to crowds about fighting the Turks, claiming that “God wills it!”
  • Hundreds sign up to fight under the leadership of the Church
  • Peter the Hermit’s Army of peasants
  • The German Peasant army
    • Beat up by the Magyars and then again by the Turks before making it
jerusalem
Jerusalem
  • A real army of Knights finally assembled at Constantinople in 1097
  • Crusaders first took Antioch and reached Jerusalem in the spring of 1099
  • Godfrey of Bouillon broke through the city walls
  • Crusaders were merciless and contemporary accounts say they were wading through blood up to their knees
  • Thousands of Moslems and Jews were killed
the next century
The Next Century
  • As the Western Nobles sapped up the luxuries of their Eastern conquests the Muslims organized and called for a jihad
  • Also during this time, church ordained military orders came into existence in the East
military orders
Military Orders
  • 1118, a group of knights stationed in Jerusalem organized the Knights of the Temple or the Knights Templar
    • Headquartered on the site of Solomon’s Temple
  • Started off as a group to protect the holy lands
  • Eventually lost sense of original purpose, became extremely wealthy and served as a large-scale banking organization
  • A second order – the Knights of St John, later known as the hospitalers – founded in 1083 at the Benedictine abbey of Amalfi
  • 3rd order – the Knights of St Mary of the Teutons, or Teutonic Knights – organized in 1127 by the crusaders from Germany
2 nd crusade 1147 1149
2nd Crusade – 1147-1149
  • Muslims set out to drive the crusaders back into the sea and recaptured Edessa in 1144
  • Pope Eugenius III ordered Bernard of Clairvaux to call a crusade
    • Spoke to a large group of knights: “forgiveness of sins and absolution we grant…so that he who has devoutly undertaken so holy a journey and finished it or died there shall obtain absolution for all his sins”
    • King Louis VII of France and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II responded to the call
  • Much of the two armies (traveling separately) was lost by the time they arrived and the siege failed; Edessa remained in Moslem control
3 rd crusade 1189 1192
3rd Crusade – 1189-1192
  • The gifted leader Saladin conquered Iraq, Syria and Egypt so he surrounded the crusaders on 3 sides
  • In 1187 he invaded and recaptured Jerusalem, defeated the crusaders and captured King Guy of Lusignon but permitted no needless slaughter of Christians
  • Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire, Phillip Augustus of France, and Richard the Lionhearted of England took on the crusade
    • Frederick drowned in a river and his army went home
    • Phillip and Richard got into a beef in Sicily and again in Palestine and Philip went home
    • Richard fought but lost and made an arrangement with Saladin that Christians could still visit the Holy Land
      • On his way home, he was taken prisoner by Leopold of Austria, whom he had insulted during the war
      • England had to pay a ransom but John took advantage
4 th crusade 1202 1204
4th Crusade – 1202-1204
  • Pope Innocent III called a new crusade
  • 10 thousand French knights met in Venice
  • Crusaders didn’t enough money to pay for the voyage
  • The Doge offered to pay if the crusaders would capture Zara, a trade rival in the Adriatic
    • The crusaders did so but were in trouble with the Pope because Zara was a Catholic city so the Pope excommunicated them…for a little while
    • Next a deal was cut with Alexius IV who offered big money for the crusaders to restore his throne in Constantinople
      • So did while others went to Syria
      • It fell for the first time ever- major disaster for all involved- the crusaders massacred people and looted and the moral authority of the Church suffered
      • Latin Kingdom only lasted until 1261 when Byzantine empire got it back only to fall to Ottoman Turks in 1453
      • This embittered relationship between east and west churches
children s crusades
Children’s Crusades
  • Children’s crusade of 1212 stirred by shepherd boy Stephen of Cloyes who claimed that Christ was guiding him
    • Thousands of French peasant kids with priests marched to the Mediterranean expecting it to part
    • When it didn’t they got on ships supplied by William the Pig and Hugo the Iron
    • 2 Ships were lost at sea and 5 were captured by Muslim pirates who worked out a deal with William and Hugo and the kids were sold into slavery in North Africa and never heard from again
    • Another Children’s crusade originated in Germany and thousands of kids died
later crusades
Later Crusades
  • By 1217 Italian cities were fighting for trade routes
  • 5th crusade- invasion of Egypt did nothing and they all came home
  • 6th crusade- Emperor Frederick II negotiated without fighting to gain some control in the Holy Lands
  • 7th Crusade- 25 year old King of France Louis IX took up the cause but was not supported by fellow monarchs
    • He was taken captive and ransomed by the Moslems in 1254
    • He tried again in 1270 but died
  • In the End, the holy land remained in Moslem control
results
Results
  • May have contributed to the decline of feudalism because many lords died and many squandered their wealth to finance these expeditions
  • Introduced thousands of Europeans to the larger world
  • Increased trade between Europe and the eastern Mediterranean
    • But this had already begun with the Italian city-states
  • Awestruck by luxuries and advanced civilizations
    • But most of the intellectual contact was made in Spain and Italy
  • Increased the pace of economic changes – new systems of money, credit, and banking practiced were introduced
  • May have contributed to the growth of shipping
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