Chapter 2 Section 1“Roots of American Democracy” Mr. Olerta 9th Grade Civics
What influenced Colonial Government? • Many rights that Americans enjoy today started from ideas discussed in the Enlightenment. • In 1215 English Nobles revolted against the king and made him sign the Magna Carta. • Gave rights to English land owners, and lowered the monarchs power
Citizenship by Birth • By the 1300’s a legislature name Parliament had formed • In 1688 Parliament removed king James II from the throne thus demonstrating Parliament is now stronger then the monarch • In 1689 Parliament made the English Bill of Rights, further weakening the kings power
Enlightenment Philosophical Influences • John Locke – Believed in Natural Rights “The right to life, liberty, and property that no government could take away • Believed in the Social Contract • An agreement among the people in a society, they agree to give up some freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights
Enlightenment Philosophical Influences Cont. • Baron de Montesquieu developed developed the idea about dividing the branches of government
Colonial Traditions of Self- Government • Jamestown VA – Was a joint stock company – It provided investors partial ownership and a share in future profits • King James also gave a charter to the merchants which is a written document granting land and authority to set up colonial government • In 1619, however the colonists formed the House of Burgesses, which became the first representative assembly in the English Colonies
The Mayflower Compact • Plymouth Colonists landed in America and realized they needed to create rules to govern themselves • The 41 men aboard the ship signed the Mayflower Compact • A compact is an agreement, or contract, among a group of people
Mayflower Compact Cont. • The mayflower compact established a tradition of direct democracy • Held town Meetings in which anyone could attend, but only men who were granted land could vote.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • After being Persecuted for their religious beliefs, many pilgrims left for what is now Connecticut. • They developed Americas first written constitution – The fundamental Orders of Connecticut. • This document had an assembly of elected representatives from each town to make laws
Section 2. The English Colonies • By 1733, there were thirteen colonies along the eastern seaboard under English control. • The colonies are split up into three different sections.
New England Colonies • Consist of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. • Nine years after the pilgrims arrived, investors sent a royal charter to start a colony north of Plymouth • By the mid 1600’s many people who were tired of a crowded Boston had expanded to the surrounding colonies
New England Colonies Cont. • Long winters and infertile soil makes large scale farming extremely difficult • More of a small business type workplace for colonists • Some examples of small businesses are blacksmiths, shoemakers, or shopkeepers
New England Colonies Cont • Shipbuilding was an important industry • The vast amount of forests provided wood for boats • With more boats, more people go fishing or whaling • Due to the puritan religion in Early New England emphasized hard work, this is called puritan ethic
Middle Colonies • Consists of Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York • New York was a proprietary colony which means that the owner of the land controlled the government • New Jersey became a proprietary colony when it was given to two men after being a part of New York • But in 1702 New Jersey became a Royal colony or one owned and ruled directly by the king
Middle Colonies Cont • Pennsylvania was a proprietary company when given to William Penn • Penn saw his colony, as a place to put his Quaker ideals of peace, equality, and justice to work. • In Contrast to New England, the soil and climate in the middle colonies was more suited for agriculture
Middle Colonies Cont • Industries were able to take advantage of the abundant natural resources • Ironworks became important due to the immigrants from European countries
Southern Colonies • Consisted of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland • Southern colonies like Georgia were the first defense in Spanish attack • People in debt could get a fresh start in the southern colonies with all of the farming • Tobacco flourished on The east coast of Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina
Southern Colonies Cont. • Rice and Indigo was also found on the coast of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina • The regions rivers made it very easy to transport all of the crops grown • Lots of big plantations where seen and needed many people to take care of the crop growing
Religion • Desire of religious freedom is the reason many settlers first came to America • In colonies like Massachusetts, religious leaders were also government leaders • However in other colonies religion became separate from government • In Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, toleration of other religions drew settlers of many different faiths
Education • Religious feeling, lead to the foundation of America’s first colleges and schools • Colleges such has Harvard, Princeton, and William & Mary • These schools were created for the purpose of training ministers • Schools were created so that people could read and understand the bible • Slaves were not aloud to be taught to read or write
Family Life • Men were formal heads of the family • Wives looked after children and did house work • Occasionally women held jobs outside of homes • Many older sons worked as apprentices • Women still could not vote
Ideas About Government • Despite inequalities, enlightenment reinforced thoughts of natural rights • The Theory of egalitarianism or equality was formed. • One element of this was the belief of many colonists that they possessed all of the traditional rights of native English people • By 1733 all thirteen English colonies had been established with its own constitution
Growing Discontent • By the mid 1700s many Americans felt the did not possess the rights of English Citizens • Colonists accepted John Locke’s idea that government derives its power from the consent of the people. • But British government was unresponsive and this upset the colonies • It would lead to one idea………INDEPENDENCE!