Main Idea In an attempt to improve their working conditions, industrial workers came together to form unions in the late 1800s. Key Terms and Names • deflation • Marxism • Knights of Labor • arbitration • closed shop • trade union • industrial union • blacklist • lockout
Learning Goals • Describe industrial working conditions in the United States in the late 1800s. • List the barriers to labor union growth.
Working in the United States • Deflation caused prices to fall and companies to cut wages. • To the workers, it seemed their company wanted to pay them less for the same work. • Workers felt the only way to improve their working environment was to organize unions. (pages 326–327)
Early Unions • In the 1830s, craft workers formed trade unions, uniting people with specific skills. • Industrial unions united all craft workers and common laborers in a particular industry. • Companies went to great lengths to prevent unions from forming. • Companies would have workers take oaths or sign contracts promising not to join a union. • They would also hire detectives to identify union organizers. (pages 327–328)
Early Unions(cont.) • Workers who organized a union or strike were fired and put on a blacklist–a list of troublemakers. • Once blacklisted, a worker could get a job only by changing trade, residence, or his or her name. • If a union was formed, companies used a lockout to break it. • Workers went without pay and were locked out of the property. (pages 327–328)
Early Unions(cont.) • If the union did strike, employers would hire replacement workers called strikebreakers. • There were no laws that gave workers the right to organize. (pages 327–328)
Early Unions(cont.) • Marxism, the philosophy of Karl Marx, was popular in Europe. • Marx endorsed a socialist society in which the wealth was evenly divided, and social classes would no longer exist (eliminating class struggle). • He believed the workers would revolt and gain control. • Many labor supporters agreed with Marxism. (pages 327–328)
Early Unions(cont.) • As ideas of Marxism and anarchism spread in Europe, tens of thousands of immigrants arrived in the United States. • People began to associate Marxism and anarchism with immigrants. • They became suspicious of unions as well. (pages 327–328)
Early Unions(cont.) How did companies try to prevent unions from forming? Companies would have workers take oaths or sign contracts promising not to join a union. They would also hire detectives to identify union organizers. Workers who tried to organize a union were fired and placed on a blacklist. If workers formed a union, companies used a lockout to break it. (pages 327–328)
The Struggle to Organize • Workers attempted to create large unions, but rarely succeeded. • Following a recession, many companies cut wages leading to he Great Railroad strike of 1877. • Workers walked off their jobs and blocked tracks. 80,000 railroad workers in 11 states refused to work. • Violence erupted. In the end, 100 people died and millions of dollars in property were lost. (pages 328–330)
The Struggle to Organize(cont.) • By the late 1870s, the first nationwide industrial union called the Knights of Labor was formed. • They demanded an eight-hour workday, a government bureau of labor statistics, equal pay for women, an end to child labor, and worker-owned factories. • They supported arbitration, a process where an impartial third party helps mediate between workers and management. (pages 328–330)
The Struggle to Organize(cont.) • The Haymarket Riot caused the popularity of the Knights of Labor to decline. • A nationwide strike was called to show support of an eight-hour workday. • A clash in Chicago left one striker dead. • The next evening, a meeting at Haymarket Square was scheduled to protest the killing. • Someone threw a bomb. (pages 328–330)
The Struggle to Organize(cont.) • In the end, seven police and four more workers were killed. • Although no one ever knew who threw the bomb, one man arrested was a member of the Knights of Labor. • This hurt the reputation of the organization, and people began dropping out. (pages 328–330)
The American Federation of Labor • In 1886 delegates from over 20 of the nation’s trade unions organized the American Federation of Labor (AFL). • The AFL’s first leader was Samuel Gompers, whose plain and simple approach to labor relations helped unions become accepted. • Gompers wanted to keep unions out of politics and to fight for small gains such as higher wages and better working conditions. (pages 330–331)
The American Federation of Labor(cont.) • Under Gompers’s leadership, the AFL had three goals: to get companies to recognize unions and agree to collective bargaining; to push for closed shops, where companies could only hire union members; and to promote an eight-hour workday. • By 1900 the AFL had over 500,000 members. • The majority of workers, however, were still unorganized. (pages 330–331)
Section 4-25 The American Federation of Labor(cont.) What were some of Samuel Gompers’s beliefs regarding unions? Gompers believed that unions should stay out of politics. He was against socialist and communist ideas, and he believed that the AFL should fight for small gains like higher wages and better working conditions. Although willing to use the strike, Gompers felt negotiation was better. (pages 330–331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Working Women • By 1900 women made up more than 18 percent of the labor force. • Women worked as domestic servants, teachers, nurses, sales clerks, and secretaries. • Women were paid less than men. • It was felt that men needed a higher wage because they needed to support a family. • Most unions excluded women so they created their own. (page 331)
Section 4-28 Working Women(cont.) Why were women paid less than men were paid? It was assumed that a woman had a man who was supporting her. It was believed that men needed a higher wage because they had a family to support. (page 331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Section 4-34 Close Describe industrial working conditions in the United States in the late 1800s.
Chapter 9 Summary(page 332) • Rise of industry • Railroads • Big Business • Unions
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. C __ 1. a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition __ 2. a theory of socialism in which workers will take control and create a classless society __ 3. total control of a type of industry by one person or one company __ 4. settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider A. gross national product B. monopoly C. trust D. arbitration E. Marxism E B D
Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts The United States had an advantage in industrializing due to its resources and large workforce. What resources did the nation have? Why was its workforce large? The nation had iron ore, water, copper, coal, and timber. Its workforce was large due to large families and floods of immigrants. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Chapter Assessment 7 Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What new methods of selling products were developed in the late 1800s? Large display advertisements in newspapers, department stores, chain stores, and mail-order catalogs were used. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Chapter Assessment 8 Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did workers try to organize labor unions in the United States in the late 1800s? Workers tried to change poor working conditions, low pay, and job security. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Chapter Assessment 12 Economics and History The graph below shows steel production from 1865 to 1900. Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides.
Chapter Assessment 13 Economics and History (cont.) Interpreting Graphs Between what years did steel production have the greatest increase? The greatest increase occurred between 1895 and 1900. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Chapter Assessment 14 Economics and History (cont.) Making Inferences How did increased steel production contribute to American industrialism? Increased steel production allowed railroads to be built, improving transportation and benefiting industry. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Chapter Assessment 15 Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Labor unions were formed in order to F protect factory owners and improve workers’ wages. G improve workers’ wages and make factories safer. H make factories safer and prevent lockouts. J prevent lockouts and fight deflation. Test-Taking TipRead each part of each answer choice carefully. Only one answer choice contains two correct reasons. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Chapter Assessment 16 What are some of the reasons the United States had become the world’s leading industrial nation by the early 1900s? Possible answers: The United States had abundant natural resources, a large workforce, and a free enterprise system. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
FYI 3-1a In 1898, although Carnegie Steel’s output had risen threefold over the previous few years, the number of workers needed to produce the steel had decreased by 400. The use of electricity to drive automatic machinery was largely responsible for the decline in the workforce.
FYI 3-2b Today the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) tries to maintain stability in the oil industry to ensure profits. This is called a cartel. Since 1970 OPEC has controlled approximately one-third to one-half of the world’s oil supply. In 2001 member nations included Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
FYI 4-1 A century after the railroad strike of 1877, another group of transportation workers, air traffic controllers, went on strike demanding higher wages and fewer working hours. In August 1981, over 11,000 striking air traffic controllers were fired.
Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
You Don’t Say 2-1 Time Tales Opponents of standard time called local time “God’s time” because it was based on the laws of nature–the sun’s position in the sky. Not until 1918 was Congress able to pass a law that standardized time zones.
Making Inferences Just as you are about to leave home to catch your school bus, you hear a radio report. Firefighters are battling a blaze near the bus garage. Your bus is late. Although no one told you, you know that the fire disrupted the bus schedule. You have made an inference. From the limited facts available, you formed a conclusion. By combining facts and general knowledge, you inferred that the fire trucks delayed your bus.
Making Inferences Learning the Skill (page 313) Learning how to make inferences will help you draw conclusions about particular situations. To make accurate inferences, follow these steps: • Read or listen carefully for stated facts and ideas. • Review what you already know about the same topic or situation. • Use logic and common sense to form a conclusion about the topic. • If possible, find information that proves or disproves your inference.
Making Inferences Practicing the Skill (cont.) (page 313) On December 8, 1903, Samuel Langley was ready for his second attempt at flying a manned, self-propelled aircraft. This had never been done before. Langley used a $50,000 U.S. government grant to build a plane based on unmanned aircraft designs, adding a very powerful engine. The plane broke apart on takeoff and crashed into the Potomac River. In contrast, Wilbur and Orville Wright used a little more than $1,000 of their personal savings to build their aircraft. The brothers carefully studied the problems with previous planes and designed one with better wings, a more efficient propeller, and a strong but light engine. On December 17, 1903, these intrepid Americans made the first manned, powered flight in history on the sand dunes of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Making Inferences Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. What are the facts regarding Langley’s attempt? 2. What are the facts regarding the Wright brothers’ attempt? Langley used government money and unmanned aircraft designs and failed. The Wright brothers created new designs with little money and were successful.
Making Inferences Practicing the Skill (cont.) 3. What inferences might you draw based on the success of the Wright brothers and failure of Langley? ? ? ? ? ?
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.