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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:The Roots of Progressivism Section 2:Roosevelt and Taft Section 3:The Wilson Years Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. Can Politics Fix Social Problems? Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded, working conditions were often bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social reforms. • What reforms do you think progressives wanted to achieve? • Which of these reforms can you see in today’s society? Chapter Intro

  4. Chapter Timeline

  5. Chapter Timeline

  6. The Roots of Progressivism Why did many citizens call for reforms? Chapter Intro 1

  7. Roosevelt and Taft What were the policies and achievements of the Roosevelt and Taft presidencies? Chapter Intro 2

  8. The Wilson Years What reforms did President Wilson undertake? Chapter Intro 3

  9. Chapter Preview-End

  10. Big Ideas Group ActionThe progressives sought to improve life in the United States with social, economic, and political reforms. Section 1-Main Idea

  11. Content Vocabulary • muckraker • direct primary • initiative • referendum • recall • suffrage • prohibition Academic Vocabulary • legislation • advocate Section 1-Key Terms

  12. People and Events to Identify • Jacob Riis • Robert M. La Follette • Carrie Chapman Catt Section 1-Key Terms

  13. A B Do any areas of American society need to be reformed today? A. Yes B. No Section 1-Polling Question

  14. The Rise of Progressivism Progressives tried to solve the social problems that arose as the United States became an urban, industrialized nation. Section 1

  15. The Rise of Progressivism (cont.) • Progressivism was a series of responses to problems in American society that had emerged from the growth of industry. • Facts about progressives: • Their ideas were a reaction against laissez-faire economics and its emphasis on an unregulated market. • They believed that industrialization and urbanization had created many social problems. Section 1

  16. The Rise of Progressivism (cont.) • They belonged to both major political parties. • Most were urban, educated, middle-class Americans. • They believed that government had to be fixed before it could fix other problems. • They had a strong faith in science and technology. Section 1

  17. The Rise of Progressivism (cont.) • Among the first people to articulate progressive ideas was a group of crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption, also called muckrakers. • Photojournalist Jacob Riis highlighted the plight of immigrants living in New York City in his book How the Other Half Lives. • Lincoln Steffens exposed corruption in urban political machines. Section 1

  18. A B C D Who published photographs and descriptions of the poverty, disease, and crime that afflicted many immigrant neighborhoods in New York City? A.Charles Edward Russell B.Ida Tarbell C.Lincoln Steffens D.Jacob Riis Section 1

  19. Reforming Government Progressives tried to make government more efficient and more responsive to citizens. Section 1

  20. Reforming Government (cont.) • One group of progressives focused on making government more efficient by using ideas from business. • Progressives supported two proposals to reform city government: • The first, a commission plan, divided city government into several departments, each one under an expert commissioner’s control. New Types of Government Section 1

  21. Reforming Government (cont.) • The second approach was a council-manager system. • Another group of progressives focused on making the political system more democratic and more responsive to citizens. New Types of Government Section 1

  22. Reforming Government (cont.) • Led by Republican governor Robert M. La Follette, Wisconsin became a model of progressive reform. • He attacked the way political parties ran their conventions and pressured the state legislature to pass a law requiring parties to hold a direct primary. Section 1

  23. Reforming Government (cont.) • Progressives also pushed for three additional reforms: the initiative, the referendum, and the recall. • To counter Senate corruption, progressives called for direct election of senators by the states’ voters. • In 1913, the Seventeenth Amendment was added to the Constitution. Section 1

  24. A B C Which of the following reforms permitted a group of citizens to introduce legislation and required the legislature to vote on it? A.The initiative B.The referendum C.The recall Section 1

  25. Suffrage Many progressives joined the movement to win voting rights for women. Section 1

  26. Suffrage (cont.) • The debate over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments split the suffrage movement into two groups: • The New York City-based National Woman Suffrage Association • The Boston-based American Woman Suffrage Association The Woman Suffrage Movement Section 1

  27. Suffrage (cont.) • This split weakened the movement, and by 1900 only four states had granted women full voting rights. • In 1890, the two groups united to form the National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA). • Alice Paul left NAWSA and formed the National Woman’s Party so that she could use protests to confront Wilson on suffrage. Section 1

  28. Suffrage (cont.) • In 1915 Carrie Chapman Catt became NAWSA’s leader and tried to mobilize the suffrage movement in one final nationwide push. • On August 26, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect. Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920 Section 1

  29. A B Which group wanted to focus on passing a constitutional amendment? A.National Woman Suffrage Association B.American Woman Suffrage Association Section 1

  30. Reforming Society Many progressives focused on social welfare problems such as child labor, unsafe working conditions, and alcohol abuse. Section 1

  31. Reforming Society (cont.) • Probably the most emotional progressive issue was the campaign against child labor. • Many adult workers also labored in difficult conditions, so some changes went into effect. Section 1

  32. Reforming Society (cont.) • Some of the changes included: • Workers’ compensation laws • Zoning laws • Building and health codes • Government regulation of business to protect workers Section 1

  33. Reforming Society (cont.) • The temperance movement emerged from the concern that alcohol explained many of society’s problems. • This movement later pressed for prohibition. Section 1

  34. Reforming Society (cont.) • Many progressives agreed that big business needed regulation. • The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission both helped with regulation. • Some progressives even advocated socialism—the idea that the government should own and operate industry for the community. Section 1

  35. A B C D Why did the Supreme Court uphold Oregon’s right to limit hours for women working in laundries? A.Healthy mothers were the state’s concern. B.They viewed women as more fragile than men. C.The state needed these women for other jobs as well. D.The women needed to care for husbands and children as well. Section 1

  36. Section 1-End

  37. Big Ideas Individual ActionPresidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft worked to improve labor conditions, control big business, and support conservation. Section 2-Main Idea

  38. Content Vocabulary • Social Darwinism • arbitration • insubordination Academic Vocabulary • regulate • environmental Section 2-Key Terms

  39. People and Events to Identify • Square Deal • United Mine Workers • Hepburn Act • Upton Sinclair • Meat Inspection Act • Pure Food and Drug Act • Gifford Pinchot • Richard A. Ballinger • Children’s Burea Section 2-Key Terms

  40. A B Do you feel that protecting our environment should be an important political issue? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  41. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency Theodore Roosevelt, who believed in progressive ideals for the nation, took on big business. Section 2

  42. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) • Roosevelt’s reform programs became known as the Square Deal. • To Roosevelt, it was not inconsistent to believe in Social Darwinism and progressivism at the same time. • Roosevelt believed that trusts and other large business organizations were very efficient and part of the reason for America’s prosperity. • However, he also wanted to ensure that trusts did not abuse their power. Section 2

  43. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) • Roosevelt also believed that it was his job to keep society operating efficiently by mediating conflicts between different groups and their interests. • He urged the United Mine Workers (UMW) and mine owners to accept arbitration. Section 2

  44. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) • In 1903, Roosevelt convinced Congress to create the Department of Commerce and Labor to investigate corporations and publicize the results. • However, he later agreed to advise the companies privately and allow them to correct their problems without taking them to court. • Therefore, Roosevelt was able to regulate big business without sacrificing economic efficiency. Section 2

  45. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) • In keeping with his belief in regulation, Roosevelt pushed the Hepburn Act through Congress in 1906. • By 1905 consumer protection had become a national issue. • Many Americans were equally concerned about the food they ate. • In 1906 Upton Sinclair published his novel The Jungle, which resulted in the Meat Inspection Act being passed in 1906. Section 2

  46. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency (cont.) • The Pure Food and Drug Act passed the same day. Section 2

  47. A B C D Who was Roosevelt’s first target when he decided to make an example of major trusts that were abusing their power? A.J. P. Morgan B.Jay Gould C.James J. Hill D.John D. Rockefeller Section 2

  48. Conservation New legislation gave the federal government the power to conserve natural resources. Section 2

  49. Conservation (cont.) • Roosevelt put his stamp on the presidency most clearly in the area of environmental conservation. • In 1902, Roosevelt supported passage of the Newlands Reclamation Act, which paid for irrigation and land development projects in the West. Section 2

  50. Conservation (cont.) • Roosevelt also backed efforts to save the nation’s forests through careful management of the timber resources of the West. • He appointed Gifford Pinchotto head the United States Forest Service, established in 1905. Section 2