THE COLD WAR Matthew Blair October 18, 2004
Ohio Content Standards • History: Time, continuity, and change • People in Societies: Culture, institutions, groups • Geography: Places, environments, global connections • Economics: Production and consumption • Government: Practices of governance • Citizenship: Power, freedom, practice • Social Studies Skills and Methods: Research
History Links • Cold War Policies 1945-1991 • The Warsaw Pact and the Eastern Bloc • The Cold War On-Line Museum • Cold War Primary Resources • Cold War International History Project
History Activities • Divide class into 8 groups, and examine the 8 phases of the Cold War according to the “Cold War Policies 1945-1991” web-site. Students present 1 phase per group. • Discuss the Warsaw Pact. What was the relationship between the Warsaw Pact nations and NATO? • Each student will describe one exhibit on the “Cold War On-Line Museum.” • Find 2 primary sources that demonstrate the coming of the Cold War. In hindsight, could anyone have predicted the Cold War? • According to CWIHP, what were the “flashes” of the Cold War? Have students describe in detail at least one “flash.”
People in Societies Links • Time's Person of the Year, 1956: The Hungarian Freedom Fighter • Hollywood Blacklisting: PBS Transcript • The Rule of Sadat • Memories of Fischer v. Spassky • Ping Pong Diplomacy by Tim Boggan
People in Societies Activities • Identify the social characteristics of Hungarian society that led to the 1956 uprising. Was the uprising inevitable? • Students will identify 1 item (movie, director, actor, etc) from the Hollywood “blacklist.” Why was the item blacklisted? In hindsight, was blacklisting good or bad? • What was the role of Anwar Al-Sadat in the Cold War? How did he represent people in his country? • Identify the cultural significance of Fischer versus Spassky. What is known as Game Six? What happened to Fischer? What happened to Spassky? • Have students read the first chapter of “Ping Pong Diplomacy.” What does the book discuss? What did the US Table Tennis Team realize about Chinese people?
Geography Links • Kolyma: Land of Gold and Death • Gulag Camps in the USSR by Istvan Toth • The Soviet-Afghan War • Map of the Soviet-Afghan War • Fourteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis • Domino Theory Principle, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954 Press Conference Transcript
Geography Activities • Where is Kolyma? What was it? Where was it? • Identify the reasons for Gulag. If a person was sentenced to Gulag, where did he or she go? • Find the area where the Soviet-Afghan War occurred. What was the strategic significance of that region? What was the USSR’s concern? • Why was the US so concerned about the Cuban Missile Crisis? • Describe the “Domino Theory.”
Economic Links • Capitalism.Org • Museum of Communism • The Origins of the Non-Aligned Movement • The Hollywood Blacklist as Economic Sanctions • USAFE: Berlin Airlift Resource Site • Harry Truman Presidential Library: The Berlin Airlift Collection
Economic Activities • Describe the basic theories of capitalism. Identify major terms of capitalism. • Describe the basic theories of communism. Identify major terms of communism. Identify 3 communist countries that were not in the Warsaw Pact. • Students will describe the differences between capitalism and communism, and how this set the stage for the Cold War, before World War II. • How was the Hollywood Blacklist a form of economic sanctioning? • Identify the economic implications for Europe if the US had not intervened in the Berlin Airlift. Specify transportation, agricultural, and industrial implications.
Government Links • Harry Truman Presidential Library: Truman and Potsdam • Cold War On-Line Presents the Potsdam Conference • The Secret History of the CIA and Iran • The Prague Spring • Radio Prague: History On-Line • Life Magazine: Giant Leap for Mankind
Government Activities • Students will determine the role of the Potsdam Conference in determining the fate of governmental structures in Europe after World War II? • Divide the class into appropriate groups that will represent government factions of the Potsdam Conference (GB, US, USSR). A role-playing session will give each group an opportunity to wield the power of their given nation in a recreation of the Potsdam Conference. • What role did the US government play in establishing new governments in Iran? What were the long-term consequences? • What was the impact of the 1968 Prague Spring on the Czechoslovakian government? • Describe the Space Race. Describe actions taken by the US government that involved the US in the Space Race and what caused those actions. What were the implications of the Space Race on US government agencies? Identify key institutions and events.
Citizenship Links • Die Berlin Mauer • Red Scare by Leo Klein, Baruch College • Library of Congress: The Internal Workings of the Soviet System • Colby Magazine: Lech Walesa Speaks • Duck & Cover Video Links
Citizenship Activities • What was the purpose of the Berlin Wall? Was it a good tool for East Germany during the Cold War? • Identify the Red Scare, including when it began in relation to actual tensions between the two sides of the Cold War. What was the effect of the Red Scare on citizens in the US? How did they react? How would you have reacted at the time? • Research what life was like for common citizens of the USSR. How did their lives differ from the lives of citizens in the US today? • As a class, listen to Lech Walesa’s speech “On Changing Century.” Discuss the fundamental changes in society this one man suggested. • Watch the “Duck and Cover” Civil Defense film. Discuss the securities and insecurities this movie would have given children in the US during the Cold War. What this film have made you more comfortable?
Research Links • *Note to teacher: students should be able to find their own resources on the internet. Thus, it is a good idea to not give them the following links. The following links are for you to guide the students. • Library of Congress: The Cartoonist Who Came in from the Cold War • Revelations from the Soviet Archives • Cold War & Long Sunset (includes “Iron Curtain” speech) • CNN: Journey Through America's Cold War Heartland • Spy Dust: Masters of Disguise
Research Activities • Each student will go to the Library of Congress web-site and find 1 political cartoon from the Cold War. Identify symbols, persons, and ideas presented by the cartoon. • Locate a source from the Soviet Archives, and present on it. • In groups, students will discover the origins of the terms “Iron Curtain,” “satellite nation,” and “MAD.” Listen to Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech as a class and identify idiomatic phrases in the speech. • What was the impact of the Cold War in the Southwestern US? Students must find the CNN “Heartland” web-site on their own, take the virtual tour, and write about one of the real sites. • Each student will research the tools and methods of espionage. Design a plan for conducting espionage on s fictitious Cold War country. Plans should include backups and show a working knowledge of espionage terminology. Also consider creating plans for counter-espionage.
Dayton Ohio is home to the United States Air Force Museum. The museum houses thousands of artifacts of aviation history and the Cold War. Exhibits from the Cold War extend far beyond aviation, and include replicas and relics from many nations of the Cold War. Students would be well-served if teachers took them for a first hand visit. Prepare worksheets and handouts to help the students learn more about the USAF Museum during their visit. To schedule a visit, print the USAF Museum Educator's Tour Reservation Forms or call (937) 255-8048 for the Museum’s Education Division. Before visiting the museum, students can do introductory research at the USAF Museum’s On-Line Cold War exhibit Dayton Ohio Field Trip Ideas
To best help your students, research the web-sites before starting any activities. This will ensure that you know where to look on the internet and how the individual web-sites function, since some of them are difficult to navigate. For comprehensive links to do additional research, find background information, and learn wonderful tips for teaching the Cold War visit Academic Info: The Cold War. Notes to Teachers
Notes to Teachers The following are web-sites designed specifically to help you teach topics of the Cold War: • Teaching the Conflicts and Legacy of Cold War – an essay by Alan Filreis • UK National Archives: Cold War Learning Curve – ideas for teachers, including lesson plans and projects • Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars – resources for teachers and students • Organization of American Historians: Rethinking the Cold War – two essays specifically for teaching the Cold War