Psychodynamic Approach “Active Mind”
So, a few questions! From the video that was set, what were they key things you felt were important? lewespsychologyupdates.wordpress.com
Who started it? • Sigmund Freud was the father of the psychodynamic approach • Incredibly controversial with his theories, but is undoubtedly one of the greatest thinkers of the 20th century • His influence is still felt today in psychology
Freud’s assumptions We have an unconscious mind which affects our physical and conscious behaviour We are motivated by instinctual desires Early life events shape our present behaviour and personality
What were Freud’s Theories? • Out of these assumptions came Freud’s theories: • Instincts • Levels of Consciousness • Personality Structure • Stages of Psychosexual Development • Defence Mechanisms
1. Instincts • Inspired by the work of Charles Darwin Freud came up with the idea of Libido which is the inborn energy that motivates us to survive. • He later changed this to two main conflicting drives: • Eros – the life instinct • Thanatos – the death instinct
2. Levels of Consciousness: Iceberg theory 1. Conscious mind – like the top of the iceberg, only a small portion of our mind is accessible to us. 2. Preconscious mind – material that is unconscious, but can be easily brought into awareness. Moves back & forth easily between conscious & unconscious. 3. Unconscious mind – is completely outside of our awareness (could produce anxiety if made conscious) What do you think is held in our unconscious mind?
3. Structures of Personality 1. Id – unconscious impulses that want to be gratified, without regard to potential punishment. Is source of psychic energy (libido). 2. Ego (primarily conscious) – tries to satisfy id impulses while minimizing punishment & guilt. 3. Superego – the “moral” center of our personality which tells us right from wrong (somewhat conscious).
Personality Id Super Ego Ego
4. Psychosexual Stages of development: We all pass through 5 stages. The labels indicate the source of our pleasure in that stage. Sometimes we get stuck in a stage and this can lead to later disorders
Oedipus Complex • BOYS: • Awareness of penis. • Attracted to mother- sexual. • Competes with father for affection. • Resents father and wishes him dead. • Fears father as if he finds out might cut off his penis- Castration Complex. • Resolved by identifying with father, represses love for mother.
Electra Complex • GIRLS: • Notices no penis, believed already castrated. • Turns to father as suffers Penis Envy. • Blames mother for castration so fears mother. • Fathers penis provides symbolic meaning for baby. • Fear of loosing mother and symbolic gains of imitating mother (who father is attached to) represses love for father and identifies with mother.
5. Defence Mechanisms • Repression • Denial • Rationalization • Displacement • Intellectualization • Projection • Reaction Formation • Sublimation • Regression • Suppression Unpleasant thoughts create anxiety so we banish them from the conscious to the unconscious. The Ego uses defence mechanisms to regulate the anxiety:
Task.... • In groups, complete the card sort activity • There are 3 columns you need to consider: • Defence • Explanation • Example • When complete and have checked your answers, complete the handout given
Adams et al 1996: Reaction Formation • Reaction Formation= adopting a view that is the direct opposite of true feelings. • Studied homophobic men watching gay porn. • Measured aggression levels and sexual arousal. questionnaire, self reports and physiological.
No difference in aggression. No difference when viewing lesbians or heterosexual scenes. BUT 80% homophobic men were aroused when viewing gay scenes- compared to only 33% non-homophobic men. Evidence for defence mechanism against being gay. Results Adams et al 1996.
What therapy did Freud use? On the basis of these theories Freud developed several therapy techniques which all fall under the umbrella title of... Psychoanalysis Psychological problems are the result of unconscious processes. Unconscious thoughts and emotions therefore need to be brought into awareness to be dealt with. This produces catharsis and cures the problem.
What are psychoanalysis techniques? All of the techniques were meant to avoid the defences of the conscious mind All require interpretation of symbols Hypnosis Free association Dream Analysis Projective Tests Transference See handout for additional information ~ for the exam you need to know a little about these but not in depth
So where does Little Hans fit into all of this? Freud developed his theories from his clinical work and his own self-reflection Little Hans is an example of such clinical work in which Freud was asked to help treat Little Hans’ phobia of horses...
Homework... • For tomorrows session, please read through the PowerPoint that is on the blog or read the key study of Little Hans in your text books and make notes • Remember the key areas! • Background • Aim • Method • Procedure • Results • Findings • Conclusions