Objectives: • Describe the three levels of consciousness from Freud‘s theory. Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious • Explain the structures of personality in Freud‘s theory. Id, Ego and Superego • Describe psychological defense mechanisms. Repression, Regression, Denial, Reaction Formation, Projection, Rationalization, Displacement • Explain the five stages of psychosexual development in Freud‘s theory. Oral – Anal – Phallic – Latency – Genital • Discuss some of the major contributions of other psychodynamic theorists. Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Approach • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian physician - treated patients with “neurotic” disorders (no physical cause) • Central idea: Dynamic struggle within mind between unconscious forces • Importance of instincts: • Sexual instinct • Aggressive instinct • Must balance conflicting demands of instincts and social acceptability • (Freud believed could access unconscious through various means – free association, dream analysis, “Freudian slips,” etc.)
Levels of Consciousness • Conscious • Preconscious • Unconscious
Levels of Consciousness Conscious • Current contents of your mind that you actively think of • What we call working memory • Easily accessed all the time • Example: The words Dan is reading, the objects in his field of vision, the sounds he can hear, and any thirst, hunger, or pain he is experiencing at the moment are all in his conscious.
Levels of Consciousness Preconscious • Contents of the mind you are not currently aware of • Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings • Available for easy access when needed • Example: Linda’s telephone number, the make of her car, and many of her past experiences are in her preconscious.
Levels of Consciousness Unconscious • Contents kept out of conscious awareness • Not accessible at all • Processes that actively keep these thoughts from awareness • Example: Stan’s unconscious might contain angry feelings toward his mother or a traumatic incident he experienced at age four.
Freud's Iceberg Model Activity Definitions Levels of Consciousness
Iceberg Activity Part 1 • Explanations • Place the correct explanation statements in the space provided on the right hand side of the iceberg. • Easily accessible information in the ‘back of the mind’ but not currently aware of it. • Aware of this information at any time. • Hidden and not immediately available. Labeling the Iceberg • In the space provided on the left hand side of the iceberg add the headings in their correct order: Preconscious Conscious Unconscious
Iceberg Activity Part 2 Consider these ‘thoughts’ and place them onto your Iceberg in the correct level, either conscious, preconscious or unconscious.
Freud's Iceberg Model Activity Thoughts and Levels of Consciousness
The Structure of Personality • Id • - The Id is instinctive and Impulsive, exists in the unconscious. • Ego • -The Ego is realistic and sensible, exists in the conscious and preconscious. • Superego • - The Superego is idealistic and judgmental, exists across conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
Personality Structure ID • The Id is a concept and it represents innate biological needs such as hunger, thirst, sleep and sex. • The Id is described as a force which is demanding, impulsive, irrational and an extremely selfish part of our personality. • Operates on a Pleasure Principle, it must have it’s needs met. • If our behaviour was completely controlled by our Id, we would have to have our own way all of the time!! • Freud believes that a newborn babies behaviour is completely dominated by their Id, they want everything immediately and must have their needs met. • 2 competing instincts: -Life (Eros) Instincts (sexual) - Positive, constructive behavior (esp. sex) and reflects energy called “libido” -Death (Thanatos) Instincts (aggressive) – Responsible for aggression, destruction
Personality Structure EGO • The Ego develops gradually when children begin to understand more about the how the real world operates, it is the part of personality which is realistic, logical and orderly. • Operates on the Reality Principle it tries to ensure the needs of the Id are met but in a socially acceptable way and at appropriate times. • Therefore the Ego considers ‘real-life’ restrictions in dealing with Id demands. • E.g. Imagine what would happen if people expressed their sexual impulses whenever they ‘popped into their mind’ regardless of where they are?
Personality Structure SUPEREGO • The Superego is our conscience, always looking after us, judging our thoughts, feelings and actions based on societies morals and values. • Operates on the Moral Principle, providing us with ideas of right and wrong. • Gives us feeling of guilt for negative behavior and pride for positive behavior. Always aims for perfection. • The Superego’s main function is to block the Id and persuade the Ego to make moralistic decisions.
Iceberg Activity Part 3 Identify at what level of consciousness each of the following exists. Id - Ego - Superego -
Iceberg Activity Part 3 EGO S U P E R E G O ID
Freud's Iceberg Model Activity S U P E R E G O E G O E 3 and 10 B 1, 8 and 12 D A ID 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 F C
Structure of Personality Example #1 • ID, EGO or SUPEREGO? • incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others • It develops around the age of 3 – 5 • function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression • function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection • determined in childhood from parental values and how you were brought up. • The answer is . . . SUPEREGO
Structure of Personality Example # • ID, EGO or SUPEREGO? • primitive and instinctive component of personality • consists of all the inherited (i.e. biological) components of personality, including the sex (life) instinct – Eros (which contains the libido), and the aggressive (death) instinct – Thanatos • impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts • demands immediate satisfaction and when this happens we experience pleasure, when it is denied we experience ‘unpleasure’ or pain • operates on the pleasure principle • The answer is . . . ID
Structure of Personality Example #1 • ID, EGO or SUPEREGO? • develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world • seeks pleasure and avoids pain, but is concerned with devising a realistic strategy to obtain pleasure • It engages in secondary process thinking, which is rational, realistic, and orientated towards problem solving. • operates according to the reality principle • The answer is . . . EGO
Defense Mechanisms • Unconscious tactics used by the ego to protect against anxiety & guilt (from id & superego) by preventing material from surfacing or disguising it when it does • Examples: repression, regression, denial, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement • We all use defensemechanisms on a daily basis • They are unconscious – we aren’t aware of what we’re doing
Repression • The exclusion from conscious awareness of a painful, unpleasant, or undesirable memory or urge. • Repression is the unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses. The key to repression is that people do it unconsciously, so they often have very little control over it. “Repressed memories” are memories that have been unconsciously blocked from access or view. • Example: Nate witnessed his mother being beaten by a mugger when he was seven years old. As an adult, he does not remember this incident.
Regression • In times of stress, an individual’s reverting to a behavior that is associated with an earlier stage of development • Example: When six-year-old Jim gets less attention from his parents because of a new baby brother, he suddenly starts to wet his bed at night.
Denial • Not being willing to accept the truth. • Example: Kate’s use of alcohol starts to affect her academic performance, her job, and her relationships. However, she insists that she drinks only to relieve stress and that she does not have an alcohol problem.
Reaction Formation • When a person behaves in a way that contradicts their actual thoughts. • Example: Lisa feels attracted to her roommate’s boyfriend but does not admit this to herself. Instead, she constantly makes very disparaging comments about the boyfriend and feels disgusted by the way he acts.
Projection • Ascribing or assigning one’s own undesirable feelings or thoughts to others. • Example: Mario feels angry toward his father but is not aware of it. Instead, he complains that he cannot be around his father because his father is such an angry man.
Rationalization • Providing excuses or explanations to justify thoughts or behaviors. • Example: Sylvia runs a red light while driving. She justifies this by telling herself she was already in the intersection when the light changed to red.
Displacement • Shifting anger and hostility to a less threatening target. • Example: Seth is angry at his professor for giving him a bad grade. He leaves class and shouts angrily at a passerby who accidentally bumps into him.
Defense Mechanisms Example #1 People who are addicted to drugs don’t want to admit it. (Denial)
Defense Mechanisms Example #2 Mason got into an argument with his teacher and slammed the door on the way out. (Displacement)
Defense Mechanisms Example #3 You say to your friend, “You’re such a liar!” when you feel guilty about recent lies you told. (Projection)
Defense Mechanisms Example #4 Jimmy has a crush on Jill, but instead of showing it he makes fun of her. (Reaction Formation)
Defense Mechanisms Example #5 "The test had too many trick questions; I really know all the material; our instructor is out to get me." (Rationalization)
Defense Mechanisms Example #6 Sarah cried in response to getting a speeding ticket. (Regression)
Defense Mechanisms Example #7 An accident victim can remember nothing about his accident. (Repression)
Objectives: • Describe the three levels of consciousness from Freud' theory. Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious • Explain the structures of personality in Freud' theory. Id, Ego and Superego • Describe psychological defense mechanisms. Repression, Regression, Denial, Reaction Formation, Projection, Rationalization, Displacement • Explain the five stages of psychosexual development in Freud' theory. Oral – Anal – Phallic – Latency – Genital • Discuss some of the major contributions of other psychodynamic theorists. Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney