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Chapter 7. Understanding and Supporting Hard Drives. You Will Learn…. About hard drive technologies How communication with hard drive BIOS is accomplished How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data How to install a hard drive How to troubleshoot hard drives. Hard Drive Technology.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Understanding and Supporting Hard Drives

you will learn
You Will Learn…
  • About hard drive technologies
  • How communication with hard drive BIOS is accomplished
  • How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data
  • How to install a hard drive
  • How to troubleshoot hard drives
hard drive technology
Hard Drive Technology
  • Technology of how the hard drive interfaces with the system
  • Technology used within the hard drive to read and write data to the drive
types of hard drive interfaces
Types of Hard Drive Interfaces
  • EIDE standards
  • Other interface standards
    • SCSI
    • IEEE 1394
    • Fibre Channel
how hard drives work
How Hard Drives Work
  • Platter(s) are stacked together and spin in unison
  • Read/write heads are controlled by an actuator and move in unison across disk surfaces as disks rotate on a spindle
  • Require hard drive controller for instructions
ide technology
IDE Technology
  • Most hard drives use IDE standards
tracks and sectors on ide drive
Tracks and Sectors on IDE Drive
  • Older MFM and RLL technologies
    • Have either 17 or 26 sectors per track over entire drive platter
    • All tracks contain same number of bytes
  • IDE drives use zone bit recording formatting system
    • Number of sectors per track is not the same throughout the platter
    • Tracks near center have smallest number of sectors per track
ide drives
IDE Drives
  • Low-level formatting
    • Track and sector markings are written on hard drive at the factory
  • High-level formatting (OS formatting)
    • Executed by the OS
    • Creating a boot sector, FAT, and root directory
communicating with the hard drive bios
Communicating with the Hard Drive BIOS
  • Calculating drive capacity on older drives
  • Adjusting for more complex hard drive organization
  • Calculating capacity on newer drives
    • CHS or normal mode
    • Translation methods
      • ECHS mode or large mode
      • LBA mode
installations using legacy bios
Installations Using Legacy BIOS
  • Let the BIOS see the drive as a smaller drive
  • Upgrade the BIOS
  • Upgrade entire motherboard
  • Use software that interfaces between older BIOS and large-capacity drive
  • Use an adapter card that provides the BIOS to substitute for system BIOS
how system bios helps manage data transfer
How System BIOS Helps Manage Data Transfer
  • Provides interrupt handler for software interrupts
  • Automatically detects/configures hard drive
  • Helps manage data transfer over I/O bus between hard drive and memory
    • Using PIO mode, CPU is in charge
    • Using DMA with DMA controller in charge (no CPU involvement)
    • With bus mastering using DMA, hard drive BIOS controls data transfer
how a hard drive is logically organized to hold data
How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data
  • Requirements to boot from hard drive and get to a command prompt:
    • Drive must have track and sector markings written on it
    • A file system must be installed
    • Files needed to boot the PC must be copied to root directory of drive
how a hard drive is logically organized to hold data1
How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data
  • Steps for preparing a hard drive to hold files (after physical installation)
    • Low-level format
    • Partition hard drive
    • High-level format
hard drive partitions and logical drives
Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives
  • Partitions
    • High-level divisions
  • Logical drives (volumes)
    • Further division of partitions
    • Have letters assigned to them
    • Each has its own file system (eg, FAT16, FAT32)
when to partition a drive
When to Partition a Drive
  • When installing a new hard drive
  • If existing hard drive is giving errors
  • If you suspect a virus has attacked the drive
  • To wipe hard drive clean and install new OS
what happens during formatting
What Happens During Formatting
  • OS format for each logical drive creates these file system items at beginning of each logical drive:
    • OS boot record
    • FAT
    • Root directory
installing a hard drive
Installing a Hard Drive
  • Set jumpers or DIP switches on drive; physically install drive inside case; attach power cord and data cable
  • Inform CMOS setup of new drive, or verify that autodetect correctly detected the drive
  • Use Fdisk utility to create partition(s) on drive; divide extended partition into logical drives
  • Use Format command to high-level format each logical drive
  • Install OS and other software
prepare for installation
Prepare for Installation
  • Read documentation
  • Plan drive configuration
  • Prepare work area and take precautions
format each logical drive
Format Each Logical Drive
  • Format C:/S
  • Format D:
  • Format E:
managing and troubleshooting hard drives
Managing and Troubleshooting Hard Drives
  • Error messages
  • Tools for troubleshooting and maintaining hard drive
  • Solving common hard drive problems
  • General troubleshooting guidelines
an ounce of prevention
An Ounce of Prevention
  • Make backups and keep them current
  • Run antivirus software regularly
  • Defragment files; scan hard drive occasionally
  • Don’t smoke around the hard drive
  • Don’t leave PC turned off for weeks/months at a time
  • High humidity can be dangerous for hard drives
  • Be gentle with a hard drive
commands to use with hard drives
Commands to Usewith Hard Drives
  • Fdisk
  • Format
  • Defrag and Windows Disk Defragmenter
  • ScanDisk to correct cross-linked and lost clusters
resolving common hard drive problems
Resolving CommonHard Drive Problems
  • Computer recently moved?
  • New hardware recently installed?
  • New software recently installed?
  • Software recently reconfigured or upgraded?
  • History of similar problems?
common hard drive problems
Common Hard Drive Problems
  • Computer will not recognize newly installed hard drive
  • Hardware problems
  • Hard drive not found
  • Invalid drive or drive specification
  • Damaged boot record
  • Damaged FAT or root directory or bad sectors
  • Cannot boot from hard drive
  • Drive retrieves and saves data slowly
getting technical support
Getting Technical Support
  • Before you call:
    • Drive model and description
    • Manufacturer and model of computer
    • Exact wording of error message, if any
    • Description of problem
    • Hardware and software configuration for the system
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Hard drive technology
  • Communicating with hard drive BIOS
  • Logical organization of a hard drive
  • Installing and troubleshooting hard drives
  • Importance of good backups