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Chapter 7. Muscular System. Functions of Muscular System. Body heat to maintain body temperature Body movement Body form and shape to maintain posture. Types of Muscles. Skeletal muscle Under conscious control Smooth muscle Not under conscious control Cardiac muscle In the heart only.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Muscular System

functions of muscular system
Functions of Muscular System
  • Body heat to maintain body temperature
  • Body movement
  • Body form and shape to maintain posture
types of muscles
Types of Muscles
  • Skeletal muscle
      • Under conscious control
  • Smooth muscle
      • Not under conscious control
  • Cardiac muscle
      • In the heart only
animation types of muscle tissue
Animation – Typesof Muscle Tissue

Click Here to play Types of Muscle Tissue animation

characteristics of muscles
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility
  • Excitability or irritability
  • Extensibility
  • Elasticity
muscle attachments and functions
Muscle Attachmentsand Functions
  • Over 650 muscles in the body
  • Muscles must be attached to bones for leverage
  • Muscles only pull, never push
  • Attached to bone by tendons
muscle attachments and functions1
Muscle Attachmentsand Functions
  • Muscles are attached at both ends
  • Attachments may be to bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, skin or to each other
  • Origin and insertion
  • Prime mover and antagonist
  • Synergists
sources of energy and heat
Sources of Energy and Heat
  • Narrow range of normal body temperature
  • 98.6 °F to 99.8°F
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
      • Need oxygen, glucose, and other material to make
      • By-product is lactic acid
contraction of skeletal muscle
Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
  • Myoneural stimulation
  • Contraction of muscle proteins
effects of aging
Effects of Aging
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Fibrous tissue replaces the muscle tissue
  • Decrease in muscular strength and endurance
  • Loss of energy storage
      • Fatigue
muscle fatigue
Muscle Fatigue
  • Caused by accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles
  • When not enough oxygen can be transported to oxidize all the glucose
      • Muscles contract anaerobically
  • Excess lactic acid causes fatigue and cramps
  • Need to repay oxygen debt
muscle tone
Muscle Tone
  • Muscle tone
      • Muscles are always slightly contracted and ready to pull
  • Proper nutrition and regular exercise
  • Isotonic
  • Isometric
  • Atrophy and hypertrophy
principle skeletal muscles
Principle Skeletal Muscles
  • Skeletal or voluntary muscles
      • Move the skeleton
  • Also control movement of the eyeballs, eyelids, lips, tongues, and skin
naming of skeletal muscles
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
  • Location
  • Size
  • Direction
  • Number of origins
  • Location of origin and insertion
  • Not all muscles are named by above method
  • 656 muscles
  • 327 antagonistic muscles and two unpaired muscles
      • Orbicularis oris
      • Diaphragm
  • Head muscles
  • Neck muscles
  • Trunk and extremity muscles
muscles of the head and neck
Muscles of the Head and Neck
  • Control expressions
  • Mastication
  • Movement of the head
  • Muscles of the upper extremities
      • Shoulder, arm and hand movements
  • Muscles of the trunk
      • Breathing and movement of the abdomen and pelvis
  • Muscles of the lower extremities
      • Thigh, leg, ankle, foot, and toes
  • Alters the size, structure, and strength of a muscle
  • Atrophy
  • Hypertrophy
  • Scar formation from injury
  • Improved coordination
  • Improved respiratory and circulatory system
  • Elimination or reduction of excess fat
  • Improved joint movement
  • Increase in muscle size
  • Improved antagonistic muscle coordination
  • Improved functioning in the cortical brain region, where the nerve impulses that start muscular contraction
massage muscles
Massage Muscles
  • Potential health benefits
  • Terms used in massage therapy to describe type of massage
  • Location of surface body muscles
  • Physiotherapy and general massage
electrical stimulation
Electrical Stimulation
  • Passing electrical currents through the skin into the body for therapeutic uses
  • Stimulate nerve tissue
  • Do not produce heat or cold
  • Used in physical therapy
intramuscular injections
Intramuscular Injections
  • Deltoid (upper arm)
  • Vastus lateralis (anterior thigh)
  • Dorsal gluteal or ventral gluteal (buttocks)
musculoskeletal disorders
Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Muscle strain
  • Muscle spasm
  • Myalgia
  • Hernia
musculoskeletal disorders1
Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Flatfeet (talipes)
  • Tetanus (lockjaw)
  • Torticollis (wry neck)
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Myastenia gravis
recreational injuries
Recreational Injuries
  • Tennis elbow
  • Shin splints
  • Rotator cuff disease
  • Short term treatment for sprains, tears, pulls and other minor muscle of joint injuries
  • RICE
      • R – Rest
      • I – Ice
      • C – Compression
      • E – Elevation