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Project 1: Education and HIV Prevention. --------------HIV Prevention------------- Intervention 1: Teacher Training. Trainers from: ACU-MOEST (AIDS Control Unit of the Ministry of Education Science and Technology) and KIE (Kenya Institute of Education) and ICS (International Child Support)

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hiv prevention intervention 1 teacher training
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Intervention 1: Teacher Training
  • Trainers from: ACU-MOEST (AIDS Control Unit of the Ministry of Education Science and Technology) and KIE (Kenya Institute of Education) and ICS (International Child Support)
  • Trained 3 teachers per school in control schools
hiv prevention intervention 2 uniforms reducing the cost of education
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Intervention 2: Uniforms/Reducing the Cost of Education
  • Treatment: One uniform per student in Standard 6, and another after 18 months if they were still in school
  • Each cost about $6
hiv prevention intervention 3 critical thinking
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Intervention 3: Critical Thinking
  • Debates about whether children should be taught about condoms in primary school (part of gov’t curriculum)
  • Essay competition: How can I protect myself?
hiv prevention intervention 4 relative risk awareness
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Intervention 4: Relative Risk Awareness
  • Informed students about the different rates of HIV by age and sex in their area
  • Warned about the dangers of “Sugar Daddies”
  • Screening of a 10-minute video called “Sarah, the Trap”
hiv prevention outcomes for evaluation
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Outcomes for evaluation
  • Ideal: HIV infection and risky behavior
  • Reality:
    • Childbearing rates
    • Knowledge, attitudes, and practice surveys
    • (to come) HIV and STI rates
hiv prevention key results
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Key results
  • Teacher Training: more likely to be married conditional on being pregnant
  • Critical Thinking: increased knowledge and self-reported use of condoms; did not increase self-reported sexual activity
  • Uniforms: reduced dropout rates, teen marriage, and childbearing
  • Relative risks: reduced childbearing, especially with older men.
hiv prevention visual overview
--------------HIV Prevention-------------Visual Overview

Intervention 1

Intervention 2

Teacher Training

Control

Control

Treatment

Teacher Training+

Uniforms

Uniforms

Intervention 3

Intervention 4

extra teacher program visual overview
-----------Extra Teacher Program----------Visual Overview

Base Intervention

Streaming

Random Assignment

Control

Control

Treatment

Ability Tracking

Intervention 2

peer effects pupil teacher ratio teacher incentives base intervention extra teacher provision
-----Peer Effects, Pupil-Teacher Ratio, Teacher Incentives ------Base Intervention: Extra Teacher Provision
  • Salary paid for one extra teacher per school for Standard 1 (Standard 2 in year 2), with the requirement that an additional class would be added
  • Teachers must be certified
peer effects pupil teacher ratio teacher incentives splitting the class
-----Peer Effects, Pupil-Teacher Ratio, Teacher Incentives ------Splitting the class
  • Classes split in 2 ways:
  • Random: students assigned randomly to new teacher or previous teacher(s)
  • Tracking: Split by scores on exam at the end of first term
peer effects pupil teacher ratio teacher incentives school based management
-----Peer Effects, Pupil-Teacher Ratio, Teacher Incentives ------School-Based Management
  • In half of treatment schools, stratified by streaming method, local school committees were trained and encouraged to oversee the teacher
peer effects pupil teacher ratio teacher incentives outcomes for evaluation
-----Peer Effects, Pupil-Teacher Ratio, Teacher Incentives ------Outcomes for evaluation
  • Test Scores
  • Attendance
  • Teacher effort
peer effects pupil teacher ratio teacher incentives key results
-----Peer Effects, Pupil-Teacher Ratio, Teacher Incentives ------Key Results
  • Extra teacher alone decreased teacher effort, little or no effect on test scores
  • When school committee training + extra teacher increased test scores
  • Homogenous classes increased test scores even more, for both high and low ability
  • Find no effect of ability of peers