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Firefighter III. Module C Fire prevention, public fire education, and fire cause determination. (4-22). Question. Question: Principles of fire prevention, such as pre-incident planning, inspection procedures, fire hazards, and dwellings are covered?.

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Firefighter III


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    1. Firefighter III Module C Fire prevention, public fire education, and fire cause determination. (4-22)

    2. Question • Question: Principles of fire prevention, such as pre-incident planning, inspection procedures, fire hazards, and dwellings are covered?

    3. 3-15.1. Identify local and state fire codes used during company inspections: • A. Model code organizations: • a) International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). • b) Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). • c) Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA).

    4. 3-15.1. Identify local and state fire codes used during company inspections: • A. Locals Codes: • 1)      Fire prevention codes. • 2)      Housing codes. • 3)      Zoning ordinances. • 4)      Subdivision regulations. • 5)      Building codes. • 6)      Electrical codes. • 7)      Mechanical codes. • 8)      Gas codes. • 9)      Plumbing regulations. • 10)    Life safety codes. • 11)    Insurance codes and regulations.

    5. 3-15.1. Identify local and state fire codes used during company inspections: • B. State codes: • 1)      Fire prevention. • 2) Life safety code.

    6. 3-15.1. Identify local and state fire codes used during company inspections: • C. National codes: • 1) American Insurance Association (AIA)- has not been revised or published since 1976 but some jurisdictions still use this code.

    7. 3-15.1. Identify local and state fire codes used during company inspections: • 2)      National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): • i)  NFPA 101 Life safety code: • (a) Addresses hose construction, protection, and occupancy • features necessary for protection of life from fire, smoke, • fumes, or panic. • (b)  Formerly called the ‘Building exits code.’ • (c)  Does not address criteria or building codes. • ii) National Fire Codes: (NFC) • (a) Comprised of over 270 codes, standards, recommended • practices, manuals, guides, and model laws. • (b)   NFPA 1 fire prevention code. • (c)   Included in the National Fire Codes. • iii) Many NFPA documents are referenced in the model • building and fire prevention codes.

    8. 3-15.1. Identify local and state fire codes used during company inspections: • 3) Model building and fire prevention codes do not become law until adopted by law or ordinance.

    9. 3-15.2. Identify the areas of responsibility of other municipal and state inspection agencies: • D. Municipal Agencies: • 1) Construction and occupancy of a building when it is being planned and constructed: • i) Building department. • ii) Zoning board. • iii) Planning commission. • 2) Regulation of activities that are conducted within a building once it has been constructed. • i) Fire inspections.

    10. 3-15.2. Identify the areas of responsibility of other municipal and state inspection agencies: • E. State fire marshal: • 1) Code enforcement. • 2) Fire and arson investigation. • 3) Plans review. • 4) Fire prevention inspections. • 5) Fire data collection. • 6) Fire data analysis. • 7) Fire service training. • 8) Public fire education. • 9) Fire legislation development. • 10) Boiler inspections. • 11) Underground tanks.

    11. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • I. Class A: • 1) Hazard classifications: • a) Light (low) hazard: • (i) Few combustibles and only small fires are expected. • (ii) Examples: • (a)    Offices • (b)   Churches • (c)    Schools rooms • (d)   Assembly halls

    12. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • b) Ordinary (moderate) hazard: • (i) The amount of combustibles is such that a medium size fire may be expected. • (ii) Examples: • (a) Mercantile storage. • (b) Mercantile display areas. • (c) Auto showrooms. • (d) Parking garages.

    13. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • c) Extra (High) hazard: • (i) Areas where severe fire may be expected. • (ii) Examples: • (a) Wood working areas. • (b) Aircraft service areas. • (c) Warehouse with high piled combustibles.

    14. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • a) Light hazard requirements: • i) 3000 sq. ft./ unit. ii) 11,250 sq. ft./ extinguisher. • iii) Maximum travel distance- 75 ft. Question: from points of egress (3-5 ft off floor). • b) Ordinary hazard requirements: • i) 1500 sq. ft./ unit. • ii) 11,250 sq. ft./ extinguisher. • iii) Maximum travel distance- 75 ft.

    15. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • c) Extra hazard requirements: • i) 1000 sq. ft./ unit. • ii) 11,250sq. ft./extinguisher. • iii) Maximum travel distance- 75 ft.

    16. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • II. Class B: • a) Low: • i) Minimum 5-B with a travel distance of 30 ft. • ii) Minimum 10-B with a travel distance of 50 ft. • b)      Moderate: • i) Minimum 10-B with a travel distance of 30 ft. • ii) Minimum 20-B with a travel distance of 50 ft. Question: What does the NFPA Base NFPA 10 for Class B Extinguishers on?. Room Size?

    17. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • II. Class B (cont.) • c) High: • i) Minimum 40-B with a travel distance of 30 ft. • ii) Minimum 80-B with a travel distance of 50 ft.

    18. 3-15.3. Identify that the fire extinguishers requirement for various occupancies: • III. Class C- Wherever there is live electrical equipment. • IV. Class D- 75 ft. or less from wherever there are combustible metals.

    19. 3-15.4. Identify the fire exit requirements for different types of occupancies: • A       Width of opening. • B       Width of stairs. • C       Occupant load. • D       Exit capacity. • E        Number required. • F        Maximum travel distance. • G       Marking of exits. • H       Illumination of exits. • I          Occupancy of building.

    20. 3-15.5. Identify the procedures to be used whenever fire hazards, or suspected fire hazards, are encountered during inspections: • A. Usually covered by local code. • B. General guidelines: • 1) Notify a responsible party of violations found. • 2) Re-inspection after a pre-determined period of time. • 3) If voluntary compliance is still not obtained, some sort of sanction is issued: • i) May vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. • ii) Citation. • iii) Fine. • iv) Court summons. • v) Stop work order.

    21. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • A. Components: • 1) Information gathering. • 2) Procedure development. • 3) Maintenance of information resource system. Question: Pre-incident planning is the whole process of gathering information, developing procedures, and maintaining information resource systems. The building inspection is the fact-gathering part of pre-incident planning.

    22. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • B. Steps: • 1) Call occupant in advance: • a) Set convenient time for inspection. • b) Advise purpose of inspection.

    23. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • C) Approaching the building: • 1) Observe: • (a)   Location of hydrants. • (b)   Location of fire alarm boxes. • (c)   Exposures. • (d)   Condition of surrounding streets. • (e)   General house keeping around the building. • (f)   Address numbers for visibility. • (g)   All sides of building for accessibility. • (h)   Forcible entry problems posed by barred windows or high security doors. • (i)   Type of buildings, occupancies and general appearance of area. • (j)   Overhead obstructions that would restrict aerial ladder operations. • (k)  Record all information.

    24. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • 2) Contacting the occupant/ owner: • a) Enter the building through the main entrance. • i) Request permission to inspect building. • ii) Introduce yourself and the other firefighters. • iii) Advise the purpose of the inspection. • iv) Request a representative of the owner/ occupant to accompany firefighters during inspection.

    25. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • 3) Conducting the inspection: • a) Start on the exterior noting information necessary for sketch of building. • i) Move to roof or basement and work to other area. • ii) Systematically inspect each floor. • iii) Check any locked doors. • iv) If multiple buildings inspect each in a similar manner. • v) Write necessary notes. • vi) Make sketches of building, area, and all floors.

    26. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • 4. Conduct final interview: • a) Advise owner/occupant of favorable conditions found. • b) Advise owner/ occupant of unfavorable conditions found. • c) Explain that a written report will be provided soon to them. • d) Advise of any follow- up inspections that may be necessary. • e) Thank owner/ occupant. • f) Explain how information gathered will be used. • g) Make map and sketch of building. • h) Complete any written reports necessary. • i) Update procedures and information systems. Question: Is final interview general & brief with a more detailed description to follow in the written report?

    27. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • Another question: Unfavorable conditions may be discussed in general, but the firefighter should avoid technicalities and direct conclusions at the time. Explain that such conditions will be studied more fully and that recommended solutions will be submitted in a written report!

    28. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • Question: Fire department personnel should include some sort of a sketch with their inspection report to show the general arrangement of the property with respects to streets, other buildings, and important features that will help determine fire fighting procedures. This sketch is commonly call a plot plan of the area.

    29. 3-15.6. Identify the procedures for preparing a pre-fire plan: • Question: Written reports not only serve as records of the inspection, but also can be used as the basis for legal action. Without written evidence of an inspection, no proof exists that the firefighter or inspector gave the owner notice of hazardous conditions or corrective measures to be taken.

    30. 3-15.7. Identify the duties and responsibilities of a firefighter assigned to a fire prevention detail in places of public assembly: • A. Check the files to see when the last regular fire safety inspection was made and review the recommendations that were made. (If premises is past due inspection or there were no major problems, a complete fire safety inspection should be made.) • B. Check with the person in charge of the event and determine of any hazardous event or display (in terms of fire safety) will take place. (If so, the inspector should receive a detailed briefing describing exactly what is proposed. The inspector can then determine if the display will be allowed or what special precautions, if any, are necessary.)

    31. 3-15.7. Identify the duties and responsibilities of a firefighter assigned to a fire prevention detail in places of public assembly: • C. Check equipment brought in to be sure that it meets code requirements and where appropriate, the equipment is of an approved type. • D .  Check the ‘temporary’ wiring used for the event. • E. Work with building management to be sure that the occupancy limit is not exceeded. • F. Just before the event begins, have an announcement made calling attention to the location of the exits.

    32. 3-15.7. Identify the duties and responsibilities of a firefighter assigned to a fire prevention detail in places of public assembly: • G. Keep aisles open. (Prevent people from standing or sitting in the aisles.) • H. If smoking is not allowed, enforce this rule. • I. In case of any significant fire, transmit and immediate alarm, then direct an orderly evacuation. (Make special efforts to control panic.) • J. Be sure that all exits are unlocked & the exit lights are on. Question! • K. Check emergency lights to be sure they are working. Question!

    33. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • A. Smoke detectors: • 1) Ionization type: • a) Contain a minute quantity of radioactive material that causes the air within a ‘sensing’ chamber to conduct electricity. • b) When smoke particles enter the ‘sensing’ chamber, they impede to flow of electricity across the terminals in the detector, thus sounding the alarm. • c) Slightly faster response to open flaming fires than photoelectric detectors.

    34. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • 2) Photoelectric type: • a) Contain a small light source: • (1) Incandescent bulb. • (2) Light emitting diode (LED) • a) Light from light source illuminates a chamber known as the sensing chamber. • b) Sensing chamber contains a photocell, which is light sensitive. • c) Light from the light source does not reach the photocell during standby operation. • d) Particles entering the sensing chamber of the detector cause the light from the light to bounce off the smoke particles and activate the photocell, closing the electrical circuit during a fire situation.

    35. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • 3)      Power sources: • a) Batteries. • b) 110 volt household electric current. • c) 110 volt with battery back up.

    36. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • 4. Heat detectors: • a) Fixed temperature: • 1) Activate when they reach a pre-determined temperature

    37. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • b) Types: • (1) Bimetallic strip or disk: • (a) contain 2 metals or metal alloys that have different expansion rates when heated. • (b) Metals mend as they expand and trip and electrical circuit that activates the alarm. • (2) Soft metal alloy or thermoplastic resins that melt: • (a) Usually use a link or latching mechanism that is made if the soft metal alloy or thermoplastic resin. • (b) When heat melts the alloy or plastic the link separates or the latch is released which activates the alarm. • (3) Expansion of heated solvents; • (a) Contain a small glass bulb that is designed to break at a pre-determined pressure. • (b) As the solvent is heated the solvent vaporizes which exerts additional pressure on the bulb. • (c) When the pressure breaks the glass, two electrical contacts are allowed to touch flossing the alarm circuit activating the alarm.

    38. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • 4) Rate of rise: • a) Have a small chamber filled with air. • b) As the air is heated, it cooled it expands or contracts. • c) Small vent holes that allow for gradual changed in pressure. • d) When air in the detector heats rapidly, the air pressure increase faster than the vent can relieve the pressure. • e) This increased pressure is exerted on a diaphragm that closes two electrical contacts activating the alarm. • f) Rate of rise detectors react more quickly to a fire but are less reliable than fixed temperature detectors.

    39. 3-15.8. Identify smoke, flame, and heat-detection alarm systems. (4-22.9) • 5) Flame detectors: • a) Ultraviolet- Can be activated by bright sunlight or arc welding therefore they should not be used in areas where these light sources can be picked up by the detector. • b) Infrared- Requires the flickering action of moving flame front which results in a lower false alarm rate. Infrared detectors are capable of covering large areas.

    40. 3-15.9. Identify target fire hazards commonly found in manufacturing, commercial, and public assembly occupancies: (4-22.10) • I. Commercial occupancies: • a) Large amounts of contents. • b) Mixed variety of contents. • c) Difficulties in entering during closed periods. • d) Common attics and cock lofts in multiple occupancies.

    41. 3-15.9. Identify target fire hazards commonly found in manufacturing, commercial, and public assembly occupancies: (4-22.10) • II. Manufacturing occupancies: • a) Flammable liquids in dip tanks, ovens, and dryers; plus those used in mixing, coating, spraying, and degreasing products. • b) High piled storage of combustible material. • c) Vehicles, such as fork trucks, and other trucks inside building. • d) Large, open areas. • e) Large scale use of flammable and combustible gases.

    42. 3-15.9. Identify target fire hazards commonly found in manufacturing, commercial, and public assembly occupancies: (4-22.10) • III. Public assembly occupancies: • a) Large numbers of people present. • b) Insufficient, blocked, or locked exits. • c) Highly combustible interior finishes. • d) Storage of materials in paths of egress.

    43. 3-15.9. Identify target fire hazards commonly found in manufacturing, commercial, and public assembly occupancies: (4-22.10) • Question: Know definition of fire hazard: as a condition that will encourage a fire to start or will increase the extent or severity of the fire. • Question: A special hazard may be defined as one that arises from the process or operations that are characteristics of the individual occupancy. T/F But will ask if this is common? • Question: A target hazard as a facility or process that could produce or stimulate a fire that could cause a large loss of life or property.

    44. 3-15.10. Identify the fire hazards commonly found in residential occupancies: (4-22.10) • A       Heating appliances. • B       Cooking appliances. • C       Smoking materials. • D       Electrical distribution. • E        Electrical appliances. • F. Question: Know that poor house keeping is a factor! Pre-plan these houses on EMS Calls.

    45. 3-15.11. Identify the human factors that result in electrical fires: • A. Improper installation: • 1) Overloading. • 2) Damage to equipment. • 3) Excessive heat exposure to nearby combustibles.

    46. 3-15.11. Identify the human factors that result in electrical fires: • B. Lack of maintenance: • 1) Improper installation. • 2) Laying cords across heavy traffic areas. • 3) Deterioration due to age.