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Reading & Writing Information The Reading Strand. Reading Information Strand. Session 4. Essential Questions. How do Reading informational texts help build student knowledge? Informational texts significantly differ from literary texts?

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reading writing information the reading strand

Reading & WritingInformationThe Reading Strand

Reading Information Strand

Session 4

essential questions
Essential Questions
  • How do
    • Reading informational texts help build student knowledge?
    • Informational texts significantly differ from literary texts?
    • Inquiry activities support comprehension of, and the acquisition of, knowledge from informational texts?
vision
Reading, writing, and language are tools for acquiring content knowledge.

The tools are specific to the content-area discipline and are chosen purposefully.

Literacy supports inquiry and inquiry supports literacy ~ together they support knowledge acquisition.

Vision
objectives
Objectives

To understand the relationship between comprehension, text, and inquiry.

To identify and use text features and structures effectively for instruction and learning.

To identify the cognitive strategies that support synthesis of meaning between experience and text.

anchor standards
1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

Anchor Standards
anchor standards1
6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.**

8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

10.Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

Anchor Standards
the coding system make your reading thinking intensive harvard university
= I knew that.

X = This contradicts my expectations.

= This is important.

? = I have a question.

?? = I am confused.

! = This is exciting or surprising to me.

L = I learned something new.

The Coding System“Make your reading thinking intensive.” Harvard University

(Harvey & Daniels, 2009, p. 93)

reading and writing are not about reading in general or writing in general
Reading and Writing are not About Reading in General or Writing in General

You read and write particular texts.

Reading and writing depend upon the existence of, acquisition of, and utilization of knowledge - knowledge of particular disciplines, domains of inquiry, topics, patterns, concepts and facts - content curriculum.

(Pearson & Cervetti, 2009)

tools by discipline
Tools by Discipline

Academic Disciplines

La

n

g

u

a

g

e

T

o

o

l

s

(Pearson & Cervetti, 2009)

increase opportunities to read informational text duke 2004
Increase Opportunities to Read Informational Text(Duke, 2004)
  • Recommendations for Elementary Teachers -
    • Increase access to informational texts.
    • Increase time for learning information.
    • Teach comprehension of informational text.
      • strategies, structures, features, language
    • Create authentic purposes to read, discuss, and write informational text.
defining informational texts duke 2003
Defining Informational Texts(Duke, 2003)
  • Informational texts have many or all of these features:
    • Communicate information about the world
    • Factual content
    • Timeless verb constructions
    • Generic noun constructions
    • Technical vocabulary
defining informational texts duke 2000
Defining Informational Texts(Duke, 2000)
  • Informational texts have many or all of these features:
    • Classificatory or definitional material
    • Text structures (e.g., comparison, causation, problem/solution)
    • Repetition of topical theme
    • Graphical elements (e.g., diagrams, maps, timelines, etc.)
building a conceptual framework
Building a Conceptual Framework

“Provide students with conceptual structures and tools with which to organize and manipulate factual knowledge”(Ashby, Lee, & Shemilt, 2005)

close reading critical thinking
Look up geodes on Wikipedia.

Read the passage on formation.

Find at least 2 reputable websites that either support or refute the Wikipedia report.

What are your conclusions?

Keep your notes in your notebook.

Close Reading – Critical Thinking
roles of text in inquiry
Roles of Text in Inquiry

Engage students in first-hand and second-hand investigations to make sense of the natural world. (Pearson & Cervetti, 2009)

Support those investigations with appropriate texts.

roles of text in inquiry1
Roles of Text in Inquiry

(Pearson & Cervetti, 2009)

provide context
Provide Context

Interview with Dr. Jones, Seismologist

today s new knowledge is tomorrow s background knowledge

“Today’s new knowledge is tomorrow’s background knowledge.”

Knowledge

Activating

Knowledge

Building

Knowledge

Pearson & Cervetti, 2009

Comprehension

prior knowledge is variable concept maps provide insight to schema
Prior Knowledge is Variable:Concept Maps Provide Insight to Schema

Shape: round (turtles), oval (some insects),

pointed (sea birds), tubular (some sharks)

Size: microscopic (some fish & insects) to large (ostrich/dinosaur)

Eggs:

In the Eye of the Beholder

Texture: smooth (most birds), rough ( some large birds), gooey (fish & amphibians), soft & rubbery (reptiles)

Color: spotted, speckled, solid, nearly all colors on the spectrum represented

prior knowledge is variable concept maps provide insight to schema1
Prior Knowledge is VariableConcept Maps Provide Insight to Schema

Omelets: eggs, water, & butter w/ veggies, cheese, meat, seasonings as desired

Sunnyside Up: butter, egg, salt & pepper

Eggs:

Incredibly Edible

Benedict:: English muffin, ham or bacon, poached eggs, hollandaise sauce

Scrambled: eggs, whole milk, butter, salt & pepper, other seasonings as desired

slide28
Activating prior knowledge is like preparing the soil before sowing the seeds of knowledge.

Jim Cummins, 2006

strategies to build background knowledge
Strategies to BuildBackground Knowledge

Anticipation Guides, Focus Lessons

Brainstorming, Inventories, Semantic Mapping

Class Discussions, Pre-questions

Visual Aids, Virtual field trips, Realia

Word Splash

Categories

Graphic Organizers

comprehension
Comprehension
  • Surface Representation
    • Exact wording
  • Text-Based Representation(Kintsch & van Dijk, 1978)
    • Explicit meaning of the phrases
  • Situation or Mental Model
    • Connects text-based information to an existing knowledge structure(van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983)
    • Provides a framework for incoming information(Zwaan & Radvansky, 1998),resulting in a deeper understanding of text(Kintsch, 1994)
slide31

Immerse

The

Inquiry Cycle

Go Public

Investigate

Coalesce

informational text matrix features naep 2009
Informational Text Matrix: Features(NAEP, 2009)

Textual

Title

Heading

Subheadings

Sidebars

Graphical

Labels

Legends

Italics

Captions

Photos or illustrations

Charts and tables

why teach text features
Why teach text features?

Locating information is a form of strategic reading. (Armbruster and Armstrong, 1993).

Text features are road signs for the reader, pointing to what’s important. (Hoyt, Mooney,& Parkes, 2003).

Text features (table of contents, headings, indices, graphs, diagrams) inform the reader about the organization of the text. (Armbruster & Armstrong, 1993; Swan, 2003)

textual features help readers locate information or access the text
Textual Features…help readers locate information or access the text.

Title

Table of contents

Introduction, preface

Headings; subheadings

Sidebars

Italics

Bulleted information

Glossaries

Index

Afterward, Author notes

Appendices

Provide points of entry

Help the reader locate information

Alert reader to the organization of text

graphical features are graphics that extend the running text
Graphical Features…are graphics that extend the running text.

Endpapers (pages)

Labels and captions

Illustration/photographs

Diagrams: scale, cross sections, cutaways, close-ups, flow charts

Graphs: line, bar, column, pie

Tables (charts)

Maps: geographical, bird’s-eye view

Legends

Timelines

Support the text

Build bridges

Signal importance

instructional implications
Instructional Implications

Use overheads or BIG BOOKS forinstruction (Duke & Bennett-Armistead, 2003)

Think Aloud

How to use the textual features to locate text to answer questions:

Title, Table of Contents, Index, Headings, Index, Glossary

How to use the graphical features to support comprehension of the text:

Graphs, Diagrams, Tables, Maps, Timelines, Cross-section or Cutaway, Bird’s Eye View, Close-up

instructional activities
Instructional Activities
  • Search through books to identify and name the various text features and describe how the features help the reader.
  • Compare books and the usefulness of features
  • Incorporate the features during writing
  • Additional center activities can be found at:
    • http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45CPartTwo.pdf
informational text matrix exposition naep 2009
Informational Text Matrix: Exposition(NAEP, 2009)

Text Structures:

Organization

Description

Sequence

Cause and Effect

Comparison and Contrast

Problem and Solution

Content Features

Point of View

Topics or Central Ideas

Supporting Ideas and Evidence

the importance of text structure
The Importance of Text Structure

Experienced/Skilled readers use the organization of the text (Danner, 1976; Meyer, Brandt, & Bluth, 1980; Taylor, 1980; McGee, 1982).

Less experienced/Less skilled readers who use the organization of the text recall more information than those who do not follow the organization of the text (Taylor, 1980).

signal words
One way to support student understanding of text structure is to explain the types of signal words that usually appear in each structure type.

The Text Structure Reflection handout illustrates the

Structure types

Definitions of each

Signal words for each

Graphic organizers appropriate to each.

The chart is in the Participant Packet

Signal Words
instructional activities to practice learning text structures
Instructional Activities toPractice Learning Text Structures

Response cards

Text structure sort

Matching structure to graphic organizer

Generate a written piece using the various structures with signal words.

http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45CPartTwo.pdf

activity response cards
Activity: Response Cards

Using your response cards, read the following texts and determine the predominant text structure.

When asked to respond, hold your card up.

Be prepared to discuss why you selected that structure.

name that structure
Name That Structure

All clouds are made of water droplets. Fog, however, is a different type of cloud. The difference is that fog forms on the ground and the other clouds form high in the air.

name that structure1
Name That Structure

It was 32 degrees Fahrenheit when precipitation fell from the clouds. Since it was freezing, the precipitation was in the form of snow.

name that structure2
Name That Structure

Clouds are formed in the following way. First, water on the ground evaporates and turns into vapor. Next, the vapor condenses into tiny droplets and forms clouds. Finally, the clouds lose the water in the form of precipitation.

name that structure3
Name That Structure

Different types of clouds have their own appearance. For example, some are wispy and thin and others are fluffy and shapely. Some people think cumulus clouds look like puffs of cotton.

name that structure4
Name That Structure

Wild tigers are a rare sight these days. A hundred years ago, nearly 100,000 of the big cats lived in Asia. That’s because more and more people moved into forests where tigers live. They cut down the trees to make farms and factories. And they killed off of the tigers prey. So, with fewer places to live and less food to eat the number of tigers is shrinking.

name that structure5
Name That Structure

When the sun is hot and the tide is out, marine iquanas know it’s mealtime. They wade into the surf, the large male iquanas swimming as far as a hundred yards from shore and holding their heads just above the water. The lizards’ short legs are useless for swimming, but their long, flat tails swish back and forth to help them move gracefully through the water. Then they dive, sometimes as deep as sixty feet, until they reach the ocean floor. There they cling to undersea rocks with their sharp claws. They push their flat snouts close to the rocks and graze on the delicious fuzz of red and green algae.

main idea
Main idea is…

the gist of a passage; central thought.

the chief topic of a passage expressed or implied in a word or phrase.

the topic sentence (if given) of a paragraph.

(Harris & Hodges, 1995)

Main Idea
the writing strand

The Writing Strand

Writing Strand

Session 5

Session 7

essential question
Why is it essential that we increase the volume of writing across the curriculum?

What opportunities exist to increase the volume of writing across the curriculum?

How does writing as part of the inquiry framework prepare students to be college and career ready?

Essential Question
vision1
“ To build a foundation for college and career…students need to learn to use writing as a way of offering and supporting opinions, demonstrating understanding…and conveying real and imagined experiences and events. …to appreciate that a key purpose of writing is to communicate clearly to an external audience…to adapt form and content…to accomplish a particular task and purpose.”

10. Write routinely over extended and shorter time frames for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Vision
objectives1
Identify standards for writing in the new framework.

Explore instructional activities that support informational writing.

Situate writing in the inquiry cycle.

Objectives
anchor standards for writing
Text types and purposes

1. Argument supported by evidence

2. Information/explanation

3. Narrative

3a. Multiple genres - fiction, personal reflections, poetry, scripts*

* MA supplemental standard to match Reading - 8a

Anchor Standards for Writing
slide57

Writing

Distribution of Communicative Purposes

by Grade inThe 2011 NAEP Writing Framework

Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2007). WritingFrameworks for 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress. pre-publication edition: Iowa City, IA: Act Inc.

anchor standards for writing1
Production and Distribution of Writing

4. Organization and coherence

5. Planning, revising, editing, rewriting

6. Use of technology for collaboration and publishing

Anchor Standards for Writing
anchor standards for writing2
Research to build and present knowledge

7. Short and sustained research projects

8. Integration of information from several

sources

9. Use of evidence from texts, linking reading

and writing

Anchor Standards for Writing
integration of skills
Integration of Skills

Reading

Standard 1 – cite specific textual evidence - writing, speaking

Standard 2 - g. 4 – 12 – summarize text

Standard 8a – study of specific genres

Standards 6, 8 – point of view, evaluating argument and claims

Standard 7 – use of media

Speaking and Listening

Standards 1-3 taking a position, evaluating others

Standards 4-6 audience and purpose, use of media

Language

Standards 1-2 command of conventions

Standards 3-5 strategic/domain use of language – audience, purpose

to build universal skills
Think analytically/critically

Take a position

Access information

Weigh and use evidence effectively

Use media strategically

Use language precisely

Demonstrate agility, flexibility, and adaptability to meet purpose and audience

Gain independence

To Build Universal Skills
slide62

Immerse

The

Inquiry Cycle

Go Public

Investigate

Coalesce

the miraculous power of writing
Promotes

meta-cognitive awareness

higher order thinking

reflection

precision of thinking and expression

In short…

“…enables thought to operate much more deeply than it normally does during conversation or inward reflection” (1978, p. 22) RD Walshe The Learning Power of Writing, cited in Schmoker, M. 2006)

The Miraculous Power of Writing
writing and learning
“If students are to make knowledge their own, they must struggle with the details, wrestle with facts, and rework raw information and dimly understood concepts into language they can communicate to somebody else…if they are to learn, they must write.”

National Commission on Writing for America’s Families Schools and Colleges, College Board, p 47 (2003)

Writing and Learning
writing to read
Reading comprehension improves when students

1. Write about what they read.

Response to Text

Write Summaries

Write Notes

Answer/Create Questions

2. Learn Writing Skills and Processes

Process of Writing, Text Structures for Writing, Paragraph or Sentence Construction Skills

Sentence Construction Skills

Spelling Skills

3. Write Often

(Graham, S., and Hebert, M. A. (2010). Writing to Read, Carnegie Report.

Graham, S (2011)– Writing and Writing Instruction Improve Reading –webinar April 21, 2011.)

Writing to Read
to write well
3 Critical Skills (from Part 2 – last slide)

Be automatic with basic skills

Be facile with sentence construction

Use strategies aptly

To Write Well
be automatic with basic skills
How fluent you are with spelling and handwriting (or typing) has a direct impact on how much writing you produce.

Start early – think grades 1 & 2

Handwriting gets better the more you write

Skilled writers

Think overall

Consider audience

Monitor their writing

Be Automatic with Basic Skills
be facile with sentence construction
Sentence combining improves

Reading comprehension.

Writing quality.

Teach basics early.

Practice often.

Be Facile with Sentence Construction
use strategies aptly
Knowledge of strategies has a positive effect on writing production.

Planning

Organizing

Revising

Editing

Evaluating ideas

Use Strategies Aptly
literacy chart all subjects writing
to take notes

to explain one’s thinking

to argue a thesis and support one’s thinking

to compare and contrast

to write an open response

to describe an experiment, report one’s findings, and report one’s conclusion

to generate a response to what one has read, viewed, or heard

to convey one’s thinking in complete sentences

to develop an expository essay with a formal structure

Literacy Chart – Brockton High School

Literacy Chart – All Subjects - Writing
mentor texts
Use mentor texts to exemplify genre.

Persuasion

Letter to the editor/parent/principal/politician

Travel brochure

Famous speeches

Call to action

Blog

Poster

Mentor Texts
mentor texts1
Use mentor texts to exemplify genre.

Explanation

Text book

Article

Recipe

Directions

Information about findings or experiment/report

Mentor Texts
assessment
Writing improves when

Teachers assess over time.

Peers assess – Writing Circles.

Self assesses – Model reflection in conferences.

Not every piece needs to be assessed/published

Assessment
reading and writing are not about reading in general or writing in general1
Reading and writing are not about reading in general or writing in general

You read and write particular texts.

Reading and writing depend upon the existence of, acquisition of, and utilization of knowledge - knowledge of particular disciplines, domains of inquiry, topics, patterns, concepts and facts - content curriculum.

(Pearson & Cervetti, 2009)

75

instructional activities1
Instructional Activities
  • Search through books to identify and name the various text features and describe how the features help the reader.
  • Compare books and the usefulness of features
  • Incorporate the features during writing
  • Additional center activities can be found at:
    • http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45CPartTwo.pdf
signal words1
One way to support student understanding of text structure is to explain the types of signal words that usually appear in each structure type.

The Text Structure Reflection handout illustrates the

Structure types

Definitions of each

Signal words for each

Graphic organizers appropriate to each.

The chart is in the Participant Packet.

Signal Words
activity writing
Activity: Writing

Generating Stories

The topic is: Rocks

With a partner, use the graphic organizer to generate a vignette utilizing the assigned text structure.

Don’t forget to use the clue words and features.

After you are finished, we will take turns reading aloud and showing each of your vignettes. The other participants will identify the text structure that you used and respond using the text structure cards.

writing volume
Increase writing because writing

Influences content retention.

Boosts acquisition of content vocabulary.

Enhances reading ability.

Writing Volume

(Marzano, 2008;Hoyt, 2007; Stead, 2002 in Stead & Hoyt, 2011P. 11)

what opportunities exist for students to write informational text
In response to read alouds

Within the inquiry cycle

During Independent reading

On field trips

While doing research on the Internet

In music, art, library, and physical education classes

What opportunities exist for students to write informational text?
audience
Young children can learn audience awareness when objectives are placed in a genuine, meaningful context. When the purpose is realistic and specifically defines a familiar audience, they can keep that audience in mind while writing.http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/teaching-audience-through-interactive-242.htmlAudience
purposes and text types
Persuasion/argument

Explanation/information

Instruct

Inform

Narrate

Respond

Other

Note-taking

Purposes and Text Types
research to build and present knowledge
Conduct short and longer research

Gather and synthesize information from multiple sources

Draw evidence from informational text

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
text features to communicate information graphically
Photograph

Illustration

Diagram

Chart

Table

Flow Chart

Story Board

Map

Legend or key

Cross section

Cutaway

Timeline

(Tony Stead and Linda Hoyt, p. 15)

Text Features to Communicate Information Graphically
text features to draw attention to important ideas and concepts
Title or headline

Heading

Subheading

Bold word

Caption

Label

Index

Arrow

Bullets

Text Box

Callout

Table of Contents

Glossary

(Tony Stead and Linda Hoyt, p. 15)

Text Features to Draw Attention to Important Ideas and Concepts
developing content knowledge in reading writing speaking and listening and language

Developing Content Knowledgein Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language

Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 12

essential question1
How does the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy complement the specific content demands of the disciplines?Essential Question
  • How is “disciplinary literacy” different from “teaching reading”?
  • What does “disciplinary literacy” mean in terms of content-area instruction?
  • How can content-area goals be furthered by thinking about “disciplinary literacy”?
who is responsible for which portion of the standards
Pre-Kindergarten - 5: standards for reading, writing, speaking & listening, and language across the curriculum

Grades 6 - 12: Covered in two content area-specific sections

English language arts teachers

Teachers of history/social studies, science, and technical subjects

Who is Responsible for Which Portion of the Standards?
pre kindergarten to 12 continuity
Each section is based on the same College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standard

Includes grade-specific standards aligned with the literacy requirements of the particular discipline

Pre-Kindergarten to 12 Continuity
anchor standard 8 for informational text
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.Anchor Standard 8:For Informational Text
standard 8 for informational text
Grade 11/12:page 52

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S.texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning and the premises, purposes, and arguments in worksof public advocacy.

Standard 8: for Informational Text

Grade 2:Page 18

Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.

Grade 7:page 51

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.

standard 8 for literacy in history social studies
Grades 6- 8:page 74

Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

Grade 11/12page 74

Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.

Standard 8:for Literacy in History/Social Studies
standard 8 for literacy in science and technical subjects
Grades 6- 8:page 75

Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text.

Grade 11/12page 75

Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.

Standard 8:for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
what does disciplinary literacy mean
What Does “Disciplinary Literacy” Mean?
  • These are the more highly-specialized skills needed to read, interpret, synthesize, etc. within each discipline.
  • These are the skills that experts within each discipline rely upon to understand and communicate knowledge.
  • These skills build on general/common skills and strategies, but are more narrowly tailored.

Adapted from Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008, p. 44.

what are we asking of students
What Are We Asking of Students?

Beyond simply understanding the words, concepts embedded in content-area texts…

We are asking students to adopt particular ways of thinking about text in each of our classrooms.

We are asking them to adopt a particular way of reading and understanding texts.

texts students will read
Texts Students Will Read
  • Textbooks
  • Full length books
  • Book chapters
  • Journal and magazine articles
  • Newspaper articles
  • Historically situated primary documents
  • Multimedia and digital texts

Lee, C. D., & Spratley, A. (2009). Teaching Content Knowledge and Reading Strategies in Tandem.

there are a number of generic strategies
There are a Number of “Generic” Strategies

Monitoring comprehension

Pre-reading strategies (e.g., anticipation guides)

Setting goals

Thinking about what one already knows

Asking questions

Making predictions

Testing predictions against the text

Re-reading

Summarizing

Lee, C. D., & Spratley, A. (2009). Teaching Content Knowledge and Reading Strategies in Tandem.

how can you apply bridge strategies to particular disciplinary needs
How Can You Apply “Bridge” Strategies to Particular Disciplinary Needs?

Building prior knowledge

Building specialized vocabulary

Learning to deconstruct complex sentences

Using knowledge of text structures and genres to predict main and subordinate ideas

how can you tailor content strategies to particular disciplinary needs
How Can You Tailor “Content” Strategies to Particular Disciplinary Needs?

Mapping graphic (and mathematical) representations against explanations in the text

Posing discipline relevant questions

Comparing claims and propositions across texts

Using norms for reasoning within the discipline (i.e., what counts as evidence) to evaluate claims

Lee, C. D., & Spratley, A. (2009). Teaching Content Knowledge and Reading Strategies in Tandem.

writing in content areas
Writing in Content Areas…

Just as much of the information processed in content-area classes comes in textbooks and other print-related forms…

Much of the thinking and communicating students perform in our classes occurs in written form.

To encourage proficient disciplinary writing among our students, we must confront our own strengths/weaknesses as writers – as well as follow leading research on writing instruction.

some quick facts figures on writing
Some Quick Facts & Figures on Writing

70% of students in Grades 4–12 are considered low-achieving writers.

College instructors estimate that 50% of high school graduates are not prepared for college-level writing.

35% of high school graduates in college and 38% of high school graduates in the workforce believe that their writing does not meet expectations of quality.

some quick facts figures on writing1
Some Quick Facts & Figures on Writing

About half of private employers and more than 60% of state government employers state that writing skills impact promotion decisions.

Poorly written applications are likely to doom candidates' chances for employment.

(Graham & Perin, 2007, Writing Next)

activity
Choose a text exemplar from Appendix B.

Tie this exemplar to reading and writing in your content area.

Activity
wrap up i used to think now i think
Wrap-Up:I Used to Think… Now I Think…

I Used to Think ___________ about teaching reading/writing in my content area.

Now I Think ______________ about teaching reading/writing in my content area.

Share responses in content-area groups first, then across content areas.

additional resources
New Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks

http://www.doe.mass.edu/candi/commoncore/

Massachusetts teacher domain

http://www.teachersdomain.org/

Additional Resources
make the connections
Quality texts and websites

Purposeful lessons

Instruction for all components

Multiple resources, strategies and activities

Discussion and student collaboration

Literacy provides the tools for deep and lasting content learning!

Make the Connections
what to look for
Use of the Inquiry Model

Activities to build/access background

Realia – artifacts, videos, virtual field trips

Student collaboration

Idea circles – students reading different texts and sharing new learning

Activities based on purpose

Vocabulary development

Access words as well as content terms

Lots of opportunities for student practice

What to look for…
what to look for1
Discussion replacing Q-A-E

Accountable Talk – prompts used by teachers

Accountable Talk – speaking & listening used by students

Informational writing

Authentic purposes

Authentic audiences

Every lesson infused with the literacy skills and strategies that support student learning and match other literacy opportunities.

What to look for…