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  1. The Reading/Writing Connection: Carol Booth Olson cbolson@uci.edu

  2. Reading Receptive

  3. WritingProductive

  4. Reading • Decoding • Vocabulary • Text organization • Reading fluency • Previewing/Predicting • Reviewing prior knowledge • Revising interpretations Writing • Encoding (Spelling) • Vocabulary/diction • Text organization • Writing fluency • Planning/Prewriting • Reviewing prior knowledge • Revising text Similar content/processes Timothy Shanahan University of Illinois at Chicago

  5. More than 90% of mid-career professionals indicate that writing is important in their work • Writing is essential for success in higher education, yet more than 50% of college freshmen have serious writing problems • Fewer than 30% of elementary and high school students meet NAEP’s writing proficiency standards According to the National Commission on Writing…

  6. National Assessment (writing)

  7. Students can write, but they cannot produce writing at high levels of skill, maturity, and sophistication • Few students can produce precise, engaging, and coherent prose • Fewer than a quarter can write convincing, elaborated responses with compelling language According to NAEP…

  8. Given the high profile of reading, writing must be considered relative reading • Writing and reading depend on a common core of knowledge • Writing requires deeper processing than reading • But how can reading and writing be best combined for efficiency and effectiveness? Reading-Writing Relationships

  9. Reading and Writing are essentially similar processes of meaning construction involving the use of cognitive strategies

  10. What are two complex cognitive skills connected to this process?

  11. What is a cognitive strategy? the process of knowing or thinking Cognition = a tool or tactic one uses to solve a problem Strategy = Cognitive Strategy = a thinking tool

  12. Simulation of (Russian) book Importance of talking and listening in connection

  13. Working Memory Unintegrated information in WM Unintegrated information in WM Learner A Learner B Pete Bowers Nov. 12/07

  14. Working Memory LTM Germane Load: Learner A Learner B Appropriate Instructional design encourages students to engage in cognitive processing that targets the construction of well integrated mental representation of schema. (Paas & van Merriënboer, 1994; Schnotz & Kurschner, 2007)

  15. Working Memory LTM Learner A Learner B Prior learning has produced: Poorly integrated representations in LTM Well integrated representations in LTM LTM LTM

  16. Working Memory Prior learning has produced: Poorly integrated representations in LTM Well integrated representations in LTM LTM LTM

  17. Working Memory Well integrated schema, is only helpful if it represents how things work! Well integrated representations in LTM LTM

  18. Simulation • Short story: Read outloud • Please listen carefully as I read this story to you. • After listening to the passage I would like you to rate its comprehensibility on a scale of 1-7 (1=very incomprehensible, 4=in between and 7= very comprehensible) • Then Jot down as many of the ideas as you can recall with out reviewing the paragraph.

  19. Simulation • Short story: Read to Self • Please read the passage carefully • After listening to the passage I would like you to rate its comprehensibility on a scale of 1-7 (1=very incomprehensible, 4=in between and 7= very comprehensible) • Then Jot down as many of the ideas as you can recall with out reviewing the paragraph.

  20. Simulation • Short story: Read to Self after connection • Please read the passage carefully • After listening to the passage I would like you to rate its comprehensibility on a scale of 1-7 (1=very incomprehensible, 4=in between and 7= very comprehensible) • Then Jot down as many of the ideas as you can recall with out reviewing the paragraph.

  21. Review this Site • http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/people/matt.davis/Cmabrigde/

  22. This is clearly wrong. For instance, compare the following three sentences: 1) A vheclie epxledod at a plocie cehckipont near the UN haduqertares in Bagahdd on Mnoday kilinlg the bmober and an Irqai polcie offceir 2) Big ccunoil tax ineesacrs tihs yaer hvae seezueqd the inmcoes of mnay pneosenirs 3) A dootcr has aimttded the magltheuansr of a tageene ceacnr pintaet who deid aetfr a hatospil durg blendur

  23. All three sentences were randomised according to the "rules" described in the meme. The first and last letters have stayed in the same place and all the other letters have been moved. However, I suspect that your experience is the same as mine, which is that the texts get progressively more difficult to read. If you get stuck, the sentences are linked to the original unscrambled texts.

  24. Answers • A vehicle exploded at a police checkpoint near the UN headquarters in Baghdad on Monday killing the bomber and an Iraqi police officer. 2) Big council tax increases this year have squeezed the incomes of many pensioners. 3) A doctor has admitted the manslaughter of a teenage cancer patient who died after a hospital drug blunder.

  25. Hopefully, these demonstrations will have convinced you that in some cases it can be very difficult to make sense of sentences with jumbled up words. Clearly, the first and last letter is not the only thing that you use when reading text. If this really was the case, how would you tell the difference between pairs of words like "salt" and "slat"?

  26. For Educators to consider: Again… Appropriate Instructional design encourages students to engage in cognitive processing that targets the construction of well integrated mental representation of schema. (Paas & van Merriënboer, 1994; Schnotz & Kurschner, 2007) Prior learning has produced: Poorly integrated representations in LTM Well integrated representations in LTM LTM LTM

  27. Appropriate Instructional design encourages students to engage in cognitive processing that targets the construction of well integrated mental representation of schema. (Paas & van Merriënboer, 1994; Schnotz & Kurschner, 2007) For consideration: How well does typical instruction of the written word make use of this principle of instructional design? Might word structure instruction be a way of targeting well integrated mental representations of schemas for how the written word works to represent meaning? Prior learning has produced: Poorly integrated representations in LTM Well integrated representations in LTM LTM LTM

  28. Simulations • Write a short paragraph about you weekend: • Not allowed to use words with the letter [e]. • Now with out using [S]

  29. Simulations • Write a short paragraph about you weekend: • How did it make you feel? • What struggles did you have?

  30. Interacting with Text Author’s Words Vocabulary Punctuation Style Syntax Strategies Using cueing systems Activating prior knowledge Predicting Visualizing Questioning Drawing inferences Finding important information Summarizing Synthesizing and evaluating Monitoring/ revising comprehension Language Knowledge Phonology Morphology Syntax Vocabulary Text Features Use of organizational tools Use of informational tools (glossary, captions) Format/Layout Use of space and graphics Use of illustrations Author’s Purpose Topic Ideas Message Text Knowledge Organizational & informational structure Artistic elements of text Print concepts Text type Self-Concept as a Reader Purpose for reading Interests & Experiences Factual Knowledge High-Yield Strategy: Visual Representation

  31. Visual Representation B is for by, buy, or bye R is for right or rite (wright or write) T is for to, too, or two

  32. Linda’s Simulation

  33. So what do we do?

  34. Typically we are strong in these areas: Be Sure We Are Connecting to Both Reading & Writing

  35. Planning and Goal Setting • My purpose is… • My top priority is … • I will accomplish my goal • by…

  36. Tapping Prior Knowledge • I already know that… • This reminds me of... • This relates to...

  37. Making Predictions • I’ll bet that... • I think... • If , then...

  38. Visualizing • I can picture... • In my mind I see... • If this were a movie...

  39. Revising Meaning • At first I thought , • but now I….. • My latest thought about this • is... • I’m getting a different picture • here because...

  40. Making Connections • This reminds me of... • I experienced this once • when... • I can relate to this because...

  41. Summarizing • The basic gist is… • The key information is… • In a nutshell, this says that..

  42. Asking Questions • I wonder why... • What if... • How come...

  43. Forming Interpretations • What this means to me is... • I think this represents... • The idea I’m getting is...

  44. Evaluating • I like/don’t like • because... • My opinion is • because… • The most important message • is _____because…

  45. Adopting an Alignment • The character I most identify • with is... • I really got into the story • when... • I can relate to this author • because...

  46. Analyzing the Author’s Craft • A golden line for me is... • This word/phrase stands out • for me because... • I like how the author uses • _ to show...

  47. Monitoring • I got lost here because… • I need to reread the part • where… • I know I’m on the right track • because...

  48. Clarifying • To understand better, I need • to know more about… • Something that is still not • clear is… • I’m guessing that this means • ____, but I need to...

  49. Reflecting and Relating • So, the big idea is... • A conclusion I’m drawing • is... • This is relevant to my life • because...